The Human Truth Foundation

The Book of Hōshea / Hosea / Osee

By Vexen Crabtree 2012

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FB, LJ

Written around the 8th century BCE, Hosea wrote this book to defend his choice to marry the Gomer, who was perpetually somewhat short of morals. To give it religious depth, some now say that it is also about God (patient) puts up with the immorality of us humans, but, this explanation of why this is considered a holy book seems dubious.


1. The 14 chapters of Hosea (197 verses)

Hosea chapter 1 (11 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1The word of the LORD that came unto Hosea, the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel.A word of Jehovah that hath been unto Hosea, son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joash, king of Israel:
2The beginning of the word of the LORD by Hosea. And the LORD said to Hosea, Go, take unto thee a wife of whoredoms and children of whoredoms: for the land hath committed great whoredom, departing from the LORD.The commencement of Jehovah's speaking by Hosea. And Jehovah saith unto Hosea, `Go, take to thee a woman of whoredoms, and children of whoredoms, for utterly go a-whoring doth the land from after Jehovah.'
3So he went and took Gomer the daughter of Diblaim; which conceived, and bare him a son.And he goeth and taketh Gomer daughter of Diblaim, and she conceiveth and beareth to him a son;
4And the LORD said unto him, Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little while, and I will avenge the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and will cause to cease the kingdom of the house of Israel.and Jehovah saith unto him, `Call his name Jezreel, for yet a little, and I have charged the blood of Jezreel on the house of Jehu, and have caused to cease the kingdom of the house of Israel;
5And it shall come to pass at that day, that I will break the bow of Israel, in the valley of Jezreel.and it hath come to pass in that day that I have broken the bow of Israel, in the valley of Jezreel.'
6And she conceived again, and bare a daughter. And God said unto him, Call her name Loruhamah: for I will no more have mercy upon the house of Israel; but I will utterly take them away.And she conceiveth again, and beareth a daughter, and He saith to him, `Call her name Lo-Ruhamah, for I add no more to pity the house of Israel, for I do utterly take them away;
7But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will save them by the LORD their God, and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen.and the house of Judah I pity, and have saved them by Jehovah their God, and do not save them by bow, and by sword, and by battle, by horses, and by horsemen.'
8Now when she had weaned Loruhamah, she conceived, and bare a son.And she weaneth Lo-Ruhamah, and conceiveth, and beareth a son;
9Then said God, Call his name Loammi: for ye are not my people, and I will not be your God.and He saith, `Call his name Lo-Ammi, for ye `are' not My people, and I am not for you;
10Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured nor numbered; and it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people, there it shall be said unto them, Ye are the sons of the living God.and the number of the sons of Israel hath been as the sand of the sea, that is not measured nor numbered, and it hath come to pass in the place where it is said to them, Ye `are' not My people, it is said to them, Sons of the Living God;
11Then shall the children of Judah and the children of Israel be gathered together, and appoint themselves one head, and they shall come up out of the land: for great shall be the day of Jezreel.and gathered have been the sons of Judah and the sons of Israel together, and they have appointed to themselves one head, and have gone up from the land, for great `is' the day of Jezreel.

Hosea chapter 2 (23 verses) - "Your mother has been unfaithful. I will expose her lewdness. Now I will speak tenderly to her. I will betroth you to me forever."1

KJVYLTNotes
1Say ye unto your brethren, Ammi; and to your sisters, Ruhamah.`Say ye to your brethren -- Ammi, And to your sisters -- Ruhamah.
2Plead with your mother, plead: for she is not my wife, neither am I her husband: let her therefore put away her whoredoms out of her sight, and her adulteries from between her breasts;Plead ye with your mother -- plead, (For she `is' not My wife, and I `am' not her husband,) And she turneth her whoredoms from before her, And her adulteries from between her breasts,
3Lest I strip her naked, and set her as in the day that she was born, and make her as a wilderness, and set her like a dry land, and slay her with thirst.Lest I strip her naked. And have set her up as `in' the day of her birth, And have made her as a wilderness, And have set her as a dry land, And have put her to death with thirst.
4And I will not have mercy upon her children; for they be the children of whoredoms.And her sons I do not pity, For sons of whoredoms `are' they,
5For their mother hath played the harlot: she that conceived them hath done shamefully: for she said, I will go after my lovers, that give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, mine oil and my drink.For gone a-whoring hath their mother, Acted shamefully hath their conceiver, For she hath said, I go after my lovers, Those giving my bread and my water, My wool and my flax, my oil and my drink.
6Therefore, behold, I will hedge up thy way with thorns, and make a wall, that she shall not find her paths.Therefore, lo, I am hedging up thy way with thorns, And I have made for her a wall, And her paths she doth not find.
7And she shall follow after her lovers, but she shall not overtake them; and she shall seek them, but shall not find them: then shall she say, I will go and return to my first husband; for then was it better with me than now.And she hath pursued her lovers, And she doth not overtake them, And hath sought them, and doth not find, And she hath said: I go, and I turn back unto My first husband, For -- better to me then than now.
8For she did not know that I gave her corn, and wine, and oil, and multiplied her silver and gold, which they prepared for Baal.And she knew not that I had given to her, The corn, and the new wine, and the oil. Yea, silver I did multiply to her, And the gold they prepared for Baal.
9Therefore will I return, and take away my corn in the time thereof, and my wine in the season thereof, and will recover my wool and my flax given to cover her nakedness.Therefore do I turn back, And I have taken My corn in its season, And My new wine in its appointed time, And I have taken away My wool and My flax, covering her nakedness.
10And now will I discover her lewdness in the sight of her lovers, and none shall deliver her out of mine hand.And now do I reveal her dishonour before the eyes of her lovers, And none doth deliver her out of My hand.
11I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast days, her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts.And I have caused to cease all her joy, Her festival, her new moon, and her sabbath, Even all her appointed times,
12And I will destroy her vines and her fig trees, whereof she hath said, These are my rewards that my lovers have given me: and I will make them a forest, and the beasts of the field shall eat them.And made desolate her vine and her fig-tree, Of which she said, A gift they `are' to me, That my lovers have given to me, And I have made them for a forest, And consumed them hath a beast of the field.
13And I will visit upon her the days of Baalim, wherein she burned incense to them, and she decked herself with her earrings and her jewels, and she went after her lovers, and forgat me, saith the LORD.And I have charged on her the days of the Baalim, To whom she maketh perfume, And putteth on her ring and her ornament, And goeth after her lovers, And Me forgat -- an affirmation of Jehovah.
14Therefore, behold, I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak comfortably unto her.Therefore, lo, I am enticing her, And have caused her to go to the wilderness, And I have spoken unto her heart,
15And I will give her her vineyards from thence, and the valley of Achor for a door of hope: and she shall sing there, as in the days of her youth, and as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt.And given to her her vineyards from thence, And the valley of Achor for an opening of hope, And she hath responded there as in the days of her youth, And as in the day of her coming up out of the land of Egypt.
16And it shall be at that day, saith the LORD, that thou shalt call me Ishi; and shalt call me no more Baali.And it hath come to pass, in that day, An affirmation of Jehovah, Thou dost call Me -- My husband, And dost not call Me any more -- My lord.
17For I will take away the names of Baalim out of her mouth, and they shall no more be remembered by their name.And I have turned aside the names of the lords from her mouth, And they are not remembered any more by their name.
18And in that day will I make a covenant for them with the beasts of the field and with the fowls of heaven, and with the creeping things of the ground: and I will break the bow and the sword and the battle out of the earth, and will make them to lie down safely.And I have made to them a covenant in that day, with the beast of the field, And with the fowl of the heavens, And the creeping thing of the ground, And bow, and sword, and war I break from off the land, And have caused them to lie down confidently.
19And I will betroth thee unto me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in lovingkindness, and in mercies.And I have betrothed thee to Me to the age, And betrothed thee to Me in righteousness, And in judgment, and kindness, and mercies,
20I will even betroth thee unto me in faithfulness: and thou shalt know the LORD.And betrothed thee to Me in faithfulness, And thou hast known Jehovah.
21And it shall come to pass in that day, I will hear, saith the LORD, I will hear the heavens, and they shall hear the earth;And it hath come to pass in that day, I answer -- an affirmation of Jehovah, I answer the heavens, and they answer the earth.
22And the earth shall hear the corn, and the wine, and the oil; and they shall hear Jezreel.And the earth doth answer the corn, And the new wine, and the oil, And they answer Jezreel.
23And I will sow her unto me in the earth; and I will have mercy upon her that had not obtained mercy; and I will say to them which were not my people, Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art my God.And I have sowed her to Me in the land, And I have pitied Lo-Ruhamah, And I have said to Lo-Ammi, My people thou `art', and it saith, My God!'

Hosea chapter 3 (5 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1Then said the LORD unto me, Go yet, love a woman beloved of her friend, yet an adulteress, according to the love of the LORD toward the children of Israel, who look to other gods, and love flagons of wine.And Jehovah saith unto me: `Again, go, love a woman, loved of a friend, and an adulteress, like the loved of Jehovah, the sons of Israel, and they are turning unto other gods, and are lovers of grape-cakes.'
2So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of silver, and for an homer of barley, and an half homer of barley:And I buy her to me for fifteen silverlings, and a homer and a letech of barley;
3And I said unto her, Thou shalt abide for me many days; thou shalt not play the harlot, and thou shalt not be for another man: so will I also be for thee.and I say unto her, `Many days thou dost remain for Me, thou dost not go a-whoring, nor become any one's; and I also `am' for thee.'
4For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and without teraphim:For many days remain do the sons of Israel without a king, and there is no prince, and there is no sacrifice, and there is no standing pillar, and there is no ephod and teraphim.
5Afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the LORD their God, and David their king; and shall fear the LORD and his goodness in the latter days.Afterwards turned back have the sons of Israel, and sought Jehovah their God, and David their king, and have hastened unto Jehovah, and unto His goodness, in the latter end of the days.

Hosea chapter 4 (19 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1Hear the word of the LORD, ye children of Israel: for the LORD hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, because there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God in the land.`Hear a word of Jehovah, sons of Israel, For a strife `is' to Jehovah with inhabitants of the land, For there is no truth, nor kindness, Nor knowledge of God, in the land,
2By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery, they break out, and blood toucheth blood.Swearing, and lying, and murdering, And stealing, and committing adultery -- have increased, And blood against blood hath touched.
3Therefore shall the land mourn, and every one that dwelleth therein shall languish, with the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven; yea, the fishes of the sea also shall be taken away.Therefore mourn doth the land, And weak is every dweller in it, With the beast of the field, And with the fowl of the heavens, And the fishes of the sea -- they are removed.
4Yet let no man strive, nor reprove another: for thy people are as they that strive with the priest.Only, let no one strive, nor reprove a man, And thy people `are' as those striving with a priest.
5Therefore shalt thou fall in the day, and the prophet also shall fall with thee in the night, and I will destroy thy mother.And thou hast stumbled in the day, And stumbled hath also a prophet with thee in the night, And I have cut off thy mother.
6My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children.Cut off have been My people for lack of knowledge, Because thou knowledge hast rejected, I reject thee from being priest to Me, And thou forgettest the law of thy God, I forget thy sons, I also!
7As they were increased, so they sinned against me: therefore will I change their glory into shame.According to their abundance so they sinned against Me, Their honour into shame I change.
8They eat up the sin of my people, and they set their heart on their iniquity.The sin of My people they do eat, And unto their iniquity lift up their soul.
9And there shall be, like people, like priest: and I will punish them for their ways, and reward them their doings.And it hath been, like people, like priest, And I have charged on it its ways, And its habitual doings I return to it.
10For they shall eat, and not have enough: they shall commit whoredom, and shall not increase: because they have left off to take heed to the LORD.And they have eaten, and are not satisfied, They have gone a-whoring, and increase not, For they have left off taking heed to Jehovah.
11Whoredom and wine and new wine take away the heart.Whoredom, and wine, and new wine, take the heart,
12My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto them: for the spirit of whoredoms hath caused them to err, and they have gone a whoring from under their God.My people at its staff asketh and its rod declareth to it, For a spirit of whoredoms hath caused to err, And they go a-whoring from under their God.
13They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shadow thereof is good: therefore your daughters shall commit whoredom, and your spouses shall commit adultery.On tops of the mountains they do sacrifice, And on the hills they make perfume, Under oak, and poplar, and terebinth, For good `is' its shade.
14I will not punish your daughters when they commit whoredom, nor your spouses when they commit adultery: for themselves are separated with whores, and they sacrifice with harlots: therefore the people that doth not understand shall fall.Therefore commit whoredom do your daughters, And your spouses commit adultery, I do not see after your daughters when they commit whoredom, And after your spouses when they commit adultery, For they with the harlots are separated, And with the whores they do sacrifice, A people that doth not understand kicketh.
15Though thou, Israel, play the harlot, yet let not Judah offend; and come not ye unto Gilgal, neither go ye up to Bethaven, nor swear, The LORD liveth.Though a harlot thou `art', O Israel, Let not Judah become guilty, And come not ye in to Gilgal, nor go up to Beth-Aven, Nor swear ye, Jehovah liveth.
16For Israel slideth back as a backsliding heifer: now the LORD will feed them as a lamb in a large place.For as a refractory heifer hath Israel turned aside, Now doth Jehovah feed them as a lamb in a large place.
17Ephraim is joined to idols: let him alone.Joined to idols `is' Ephraim, let him alone.
18Their drink is sour: they have committed whoredom continually: her rulers with shame do love, Give ye.Sour `is' their drink, They have gone diligently a-whoring, Her protectors have loved shame thoroughly.
19The wind hath bound her up in her wings, and they shall be ashamed because of their sacrifices.Distressed her hath wind with its wings, And they are ashamed of their sacrifices!

Hosea chapter 5 (15 verses) - "Hear this, O priests, O king! Israel shall stumble in his guilt. Ephraim is crushed in judgement. I will leave until they seek me."1

KJVYLTNotes
1Hear ye this, O priests; and hearken, ye house of Israel; and give ye ear, O house of the king; for judgment is toward you, because ye have been a snare on Mizpah, and a net spread upon Tabor.`Hear this, O priests, and attend, O house of Israel, And, O house of the king, give ear, For the judgment `is' for you, For, a snare ye have been on Mizpah, And a net spread out on Tabor.
2And the revolters are profound to make slaughter, though I have been a rebuker of them all.And to slaughter sinners have gone deep, And I `am' a fetter to them all.
3I know Ephraim, and Israel is not hid from me: for now, O Ephraim, thou committest whoredom, and Israel is defiled.I have known Ephraim, And Israel hath not been hid from me, For now thou hast gone a-whoring, Ephraim, Defiled is Israel.
4They will not frame their doings to turn unto their God: for the spirit of whoredoms is in the midst of them, and they have not known the LORD.They give not up their habitual doings, To turn back unto their God, For a spirit of whoredoms `is' in their midst, And Jehovah they have not known.
5And the pride of Israel doth testify to his face: therefore shall Israel and Ephraim fall in their iniquity: Judah also shall fall with them.And humbled hath been the excellency of Israel to his face, And Israel and Ephraim stumble by their iniquity, Stumbled also hath Judah with them.
6They shall go with their flocks and with their herds to seek the LORD; but they shall not find him; he hath withdrawn himself from them.With their flock and with their herd, They go to seek Jehovah, and do not find, He hath withdrawn from them.
7They have dealt treacherously against the LORD: for they have begotten strange children: now shall a month devour them with their portions.Against Jehovah they dealt treacherously, For strange sons they have begotten, Now consume them doth a month `with' their portions.
8Blow ye the cornet in Gibeah, and the trumpet in Ramah: cry aloud at Bethaven, after thee, O Benjamin.Blow ye a cornet in Gibeah, a trumpet in Ramah, Shout, O Beth-Aven, after thee, O Benjamin.
9Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke: among the tribes of Israel have I made known that which shall surely be.Ephraim is for a desolation in a day of reproof, Among the tribes of Israel I have made known a sure thing.
10The princes of Judah were like them that remove the bound: therefore I will pour out my wrath upon them like water.Princes of Judah have been as those removing a border, On them I do pour out as water My wrath.
11Ephraim is oppressed and broken in judgment, because he willingly walked after the commandment.Oppressed is Ephraim, broken in judgment, When he pleased he went after the command.
12Therefore will I be unto Ephraim as a moth, and to the house of Judah as rottenness.And I `am' as a moth to Ephraim, And as a rotten thing to the house of Judah.
13When Ephraim saw his sickness, and Judah saw his wound, then went Ephraim to the Assyrian, and sent to king Jareb: yet could he not heal you, nor cure you of your wound.And see doth Ephraim his sickness, and Judah his wound, And Ephraim goeth unto Asshur, And sendeth unto a warlike king, And he is not able to give healing to you, Nor doth he remove from you a scar.
14For I will be unto Ephraim as a lion, and as a young lion to the house of Judah: I, even I, will tear and go away; I will take away, and none shall rescue him.For I `am' as a lion to Ephraim, And as a young lion to the house of Judah, I -- I tear and go, I bear away, and there is no deliverer.
15I will go and return to my place, till they acknowledge their offence, and seek my face: in their affliction they will seek me early.I go -- I turn back unto My place, Till that they are desolate, and have sought My face. In their distress they do seek Me speedily!'

Hosea chapter 6 (11 verses) - Come, let us return to the LORD. On the third day he will raise us up. "I desire steadfast love, not offerings. Israel is defiled."1

KJVYLTNotes
1Come, and let us return unto the LORD: for he hath torn, and he will heal us; he hath smitten, and he will bind us up.`Come, and we turn back unto Jehovah, For He hath torn, and He doth heal us, He doth smite, and He bindeth us up.
2After two days will he revive us: in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight.He doth revive us after two days, In the third day He doth raise us up, And we live before Him.
3Then shall we know, if we follow on to know the LORD: his going forth is prepared as the morning; and he shall come unto us as the rain, as the latter and former rain unto the earth.And we know -- we pursue to know Jehovah, As the dawn prepared is His going forth, And He cometh in as a shower to us, As gathered rain -- sprinkling earth.'
4O Ephraim, what shall I do unto thee? O Judah, what shall I do unto thee? for your goodness is as a morning cloud, and as the early dew it goeth away.What do I do to thee, O Ephraim? What do I do to thee, O Judah? Your goodness `is' as a cloud of the morning, And as dew rising early -- going.
5Therefore have I hewed them by the prophets; I have slain them by the words of my mouth: and thy judgments are as the light that goeth forth.Therefore I have hewed by prophets, I have slain them by sayings of My mouth, And My judgments to the light goeth forth.
6For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings.For kindness I desired, and not sacrifice, And a knowledge of God above burnt-offerings.
7But they like men have transgressed the covenant: there have they dealt treacherously against me.And they, as Adam, transgressed a covenant, There they dealt treacherously against me.
8Gilead is a city of them that work iniquity, and is polluted with blood.Gilead `is' a city of workers of iniquity, Slippery from blood.
9And as troops of robbers wait for a man, so the company of priests murder in the way by consent: for they commit lewdness.And as bands do wait for a man, A company of priests do murder -- the way to Shechem, For wickedness they have done.
10I have seen an horrible thing in the house of Israel: there is the whoredom of Ephraim, Israel is defiled.In the house of Israel I have seen a horrible thing, There `is' the whoredom of Ephraim -- defiled is Israel.
11Also, O Judah, he hath set an harvest for thee, when I returned the captivity of my people.Also, O Judah, appointed is a harvest to thee, In My turning back `to' the captivity of My people!

Hosea chapter 7 (16 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1When I would have healed Israel, then the iniquity of Ephraim was discovered, and the wickedness of Samaria: for they commit falsehood; and the thief cometh in, and the troop of robbers spoileth without.`When I give healing to Israel, Then revealed is the iniquity of Ephraim, And the wickedness of Samaria, For they have wrought falsehood, And a thief doth come in, Stript off hath a troop in the street,
2And they consider not in their hearts that I remember all their wickedness: now their own doings have beset them about; they are before my face.And they do not say to their heart, `That' all their evil I have remembered, Now compassed them have their doings, Over-against My face they have been.
3They make the king glad with their wickedness, and the princes with their lies.With their wickedness they make glad a king, And with their lies -- princes.
4They are all adulterers, as an oven heated by the baker, who ceaseth from raising after he hath kneaded the dough, until it be leavened.All of them `are' adulterers, Like a burning oven of a baker, He ceaseth from stirring up after kneading the dough, till its leavening.
5In the day of our king the princes have made him sick with bottles of wine; he stretched out his hand with scorners.A day of our king! Princes have polluted themselves `with' the poison of wine, He hath drawn out his hand with scorners.
6For they have made ready their heart like an oven, whiles they lie in wait: their baker sleepeth all the night; in the morning it burneth as a flaming fire.For they have drawn near, As an oven `is' their heart, In their lying in wait all the night sleep doth their baker, Morning! he is burning as a flaming fire.
7They are all hot as an oven, and have devoured their judges; all their kings are fallen: there is none among them that calleth unto me.All of them are warm as an oven, And they have devoured their judges, All their kings have fallen, There is none calling unto Me among them.
8Ephraim, he hath mixed himself among the people; Ephraim is a cake not turned.Ephraim! among peoples he mixeth himself, Ephraim hath been a cake unturned.
9Strangers have devoured his strength, and he knoweth it not: yea, gray hairs are here and there upon him, yet he knoweth not.Devoured have strangers his power, And he hath not known, Also old age hath sprinkled `itself' on him, And he hath not known.
10And the pride of Israel testifieth to his face: and they do not return to the LORD their God, nor seek him for all this.And humbled hath been the excellency of Israel to his face, And they have not turned back unto Jehovah their God, Nor have they sought Him for all this.
11Ephraim also is like a silly dove without heart: they call to Egypt, they go to Assyria.And Ephraim is as a simple dove without heart, Egypt they called on -- `to' Asshur they have gone.
12When they shall go, I will spread my net upon them; I will bring them down as the fowls of the heaven; I will chastise them, as their congregation hath heard.When they go I spread over them My net, As the fowl of the heavens I bring them down, I chastise them as their company hath heard.
13Woe unto them! for they have fled from me: destruction unto them! because they have transgressed against me: though I have redeemed them, yet they have spoken lies against me.Wo to them, for they wandered from Me, Destruction to them, for they transgressed against Me, And I -- I ransom them, and they have spoken lies against Me,
14And they have not cried unto me with their heart, when they howled upon their beds: they assemble themselves for corn and wine, and they rebel against me.And have not cried unto Me with their heart, but howl on their beds, For corn and new wine they assemble themselves, They turn aside against Me.
15Though I have bound and strengthened their arms, yet do they imagine mischief against me.And I instructed -- I strengthened their arms, And concerning Me they think evil!
16They return, but not to the most High: they are like a deceitful bow: their princes shall fall by the sword for the rage of their tongue: this shall be their derision in the land of Egypt.They turn back -- not to the Most High, They have been as a deceitful bow, Fall by sword do their princes, From the insolence of their tongue, This `is' their derision in the land of Egypt!

Hosea chapter 8 (14 verses) - "A vulture is over Israel. The calf of Samaria shall be broken. The LORD will punish their sins. For Israel has forgotten his Maker."1

KJVYLTNotes
1Set the trumpet to thy mouth. He shall come as an eagle against the house of the LORD, because they have transgressed my covenant, and trespassed against my law.`Unto thy mouth -- a trumpet, As an eagle against the house of Jehovah, Because they transgressed My covenant, And against My law they have rebelled.

Hosea 8:4 is mentioned on Is Omniscience Possible? Does God Know Everything?: 4.1. Christianity: Times in the Bible When God Doesn't Know All, and Tests People to Find Things Out

For more on Hosea 8:4 see Can God Lie? Is God Always Truthful in the Christian Bible?: 1. Verses from the Bible in More Detail

2Israel shall cry unto me, My God, we know thee.To Me they cry, `My God, we -- Israel -- have known Thee.'
3Israel hath cast off the thing that is good: the enemy shall pursue him.Cast off good hath Israel, an enemy pursueth him.
4They have set up kings, but not by me: they have made princes, and I knew it not: of their silver and their gold have they made them idols, that they may be cut off.They have made kings, and not by Me, They have made princes, and I have not known, Their silver and their gold they have made to them idols, So that they are cut off.
5Thy calf, O Samaria, hath cast thee off; mine anger is kindled against them: how long will it be ere they attain to innocency?Cast off hath thy calf, O Samaria, Burned hath Mine anger against them, Till when are they not capable of purity?
6For from Israel was it also: the workman made it; therefore it is not God: but the calf of Samaria shall be broken in pieces.For even it `is' of Israel; an artificer made it, And it `is' not God, For the calf of Samaria is fragments!
7For they have sown the wind, and they shall reap the whirlwind: it hath no stalk; the bud shall yield no meal: if so be it yield, the strangers shall swallow it up.For wind they sow, and a hurricane they reap, Stalk it hath none -- a shoot not yielding grain, If so be it yield -- strangers do swallow it up.
8Israel is swallowed up: now shall they be among the Gentiles as a vessel wherein is no pleasure.Israel hath been swallowed up, Now they have been among nations, As a vessel in which is no delight.
9For they are gone up to Assyria, a wild ass alone by himself: Ephraim hath hired lovers.For they -- they have gone up `to' Asshur, A wild ass alone by himself `is' Ephraim, They have hired lovers!
10Yea, though they have hired among the nations, now will I gather them, and they shall sorrow a little for the burden of the king of princes.Also though they hire among nations, Now I gather them, and they are pained a little, From the burden of a king of princes.
11Because Ephraim hath made many altars to sin, altars shall be unto him to sin.Because Ephraim did multiply altars to sin, They have been to him altars to sin.
12I have written to him the great things of my law, but they were counted as a strange thing.I write for him numerous things of My law, As a strange thing they have been reckoned.
13They sacrifice flesh for the sacrifices of mine offerings, and eat it; but the LORD accepteth them not; now will he remember their iniquity, and visit their sins: they shall return to Egypt.The sacrifices of Mine offerings! They sacrifice flesh, and they eat, Jehovah hath not accepted them, Now doth He remember their iniquity, And inspect their sin, They -- `to' Egypt they turn back.
14For Israel hath forgotten his Maker, and buildeth temples; and Judah hath multiplied fenced cities: but I will send a fire upon his cities, and it shall devour the palaces thereof.And forget doth Israel his Maker, and buildeth temples, And Judah hath multiplied cities of defence, And I have sent a fire into his cities, And it hath consumed their palaces!

Hosea chapter 9 (17 verses) - Rejoice not, O Israel! The days of punishment have come. "I will bereave them. I will drive them from my house." God will reject them.1

KJVYLTNotes
1Rejoice not, O Israel, for joy, as other people: for thou hast gone a whoring from thy God, thou hast loved a reward upon every cornfloor.`Rejoice not, O Israel, be not joyful like the peoples, For thou hast gone a-whoring from thy God, Thou hast loved a gift near all floors of corn.
2The floor and the winepress shall not feed them, and the new wine shall fail in her.Floor and wine-press do not delight them, And new wine doth fail in her,
3They shall not dwell in the LORD's land; but Ephraim shall return to Egypt, and they shall eat unclean things in Assyria.They do not abide in the land of Jehovah, And turned back hath Ephraim `to' Egypt, And in Asshur an unclean thing they eat.
4They shall not offer wine offerings to the LORD, neither shall they be pleasing unto him: their sacrifices shall be unto them as the bread of mourners; all that eat thereof shall be polluted: for their bread for their soul shall not come into the house of the LORD.They pour not out wine to Jehovah, Nor are they sweet to Him, Their sacrifices `are' as bread of mourners to them, All eating it are unclean: For their bread `is' for themselves, It doth not come into the house of Jehovah.
5What will ye do in the solemn day, and in the day of the feast of the LORD?What do ye at the day appointed? And at the day of Jehovah's festival?
6For, lo, they are gone because of destruction: Egypt shall gather them up, Memphis shall bury them: the pleasant places for their silver, nettles shall possess them: thorns shall be in their tabernacles.For, lo, they have gone because of destruction, Egypt gathereth them, Moph burieth them, The desirable things of their silver, Nettles possess them -- a thorn `is' in their tents.
7The days of visitation are come, the days of recompence are come; Israel shall know it: the prophet is a fool, the spiritual man is mad, for the multitude of thine iniquity, and the great hatred.Come in have the days of inspection, Come in have the days of recompence, Israel doth know! a fool `is' the prophet, Mad `is' the man of the Spirit, Because of the abundance of thine iniquity, And great `is' the hatred.
8The watchman of Ephraim was with my God: but the prophet is a snare of a fowler in all his ways, and hatred in the house of his God.Ephraim is looking `away' from My God, The prophet! a snare of a fowler `is' over all his ways, Hatred `is' in the house of his God.
9They have deeply corrupted themselves, as in the days of Gibeah: therefore he will remember their iniquity, he will visit their sins.They have gone deep -- have done corruptly, As `in' the days of Gibeah, He doth remember their iniquity, He doth inspect their sins.
10I found Israel like grapes in the wilderness; I saw your fathers as the firstripe in the fig tree at her first time: but they went to Baalpeor, and separated themselves unto that shame; and their abominations were according as they loved.As grapes in a wilderness I found Israel, As the first-fruit in a fig-tree, at its beginning, I have seen your fathers, They -- they have gone in `to' Baal-Peor, And are separated to a shameful thing, And are become abominable like their love.
11As for Ephraim, their glory shall fly away like a bird, from the birth, and from the womb, and from the conception.Ephraim `is' as a fowl, Fly away doth their honour, without birth, And without womb, and without conception.
12Though they bring up their children, yet will I bereave them, that there shall not be a man left: yea, woe also to them when I depart from them!For though they nourish their sons, I have made them childless -- without man, Surely also, wo to them, when I turn aside from them.
13Ephraim, as I saw Tyrus, is planted in a pleasant place: but Ephraim shall bring forth his children to the murderer.Ephraim! when I have looked to the rock, Is planted in comeliness, And Ephraim `is' to bring out unto a slayer his sons.
14Give them, O LORD: what wilt thou give? give them a miscarrying womb and dry breasts.Give to them, Jehovah -- what dost Thou give? Give to them miscarrying womb, and dry breasts.
15All their wickedness is in Gilgal: for there I hated them: for the wickedness of their doings I will drive them out of mine house, I will love them no more: all their princes are revolters.All their evil `is' in Gilgal, Surely there I have hated them, Because of the evil of their doings, Out of My house I do drive them, I add not to love them, all their heads `are' apostates.
16Ephraim is smitten, their root is dried up, they shall bear no fruit: yea, though they bring forth, yet will I slay even the beloved fruit of their womb.Ephraim hath been smitten, Their root hath dried up, fruit they yield not, Yea, though they bring forth, I have put to death the desired of their womb.
17My God will cast them away, because they did not hearken unto him: and they shall be wanderers among the nations.Reject them doth my God, Because they have not hearkened to Him, And they are wanderers among nations!

Hosea chapter 10 (15 verses) - Israel is a rich vine. The LORD will break down their altars. "Nations shall be gathered against them." It is time to seek the LORD.1

KJVYLTNotes
1Israel is an empty vine, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself: according to the multitude of his fruit he hath increased the altars; according to the goodness of his land they have made goodly images.`An empty vine `is' Israel, Fruit he maketh like to himself, According to the abundance of his fruit, He hath multiplied for the altars, According to the goodness of his land, They have made goodly standing-pillars.
2Their heart is divided; now shall they be found faulty: he shall break down their altars, he shall spoil their images.Their heart hath been divided, now they are guilty, He doth break down their altars, He doth destroy their standing-pillars.
3For now they shall say, We have no king, because we feared not the LORD; what then should a king do to us?For now they say: We have no king, Because we have not feared Jehovah, And the king -- what doth he for us?
4They have spoken words, swearing falsely in making a covenant: thus judgment springeth up as hemlock in the furrows of the field.They have spoken words, To swear falsehood in making a covenant, And flourished as a poisonous herb hath judgment, on the furrows of a field.
5The inhabitants of Samaria shall fear because of the calves of Bethaven: for the people thereof shall mourn over it, and the priests thereof that rejoiced on it, for the glory thereof, because it is departed from it.For the calves of Beth-Aven fear do inhabitants of Samaria, Surely mourned on account of it hath its people, And its priests on account of it leap about, Because of its honour, for it hath removed from it,
6It shall be also carried unto Assyria for a present to king Jareb: Ephraim shall receive shame, and Israel shall be ashamed of his own counsel.Also it to Asshur is carried, a present to a warlike king, Shame doth Ephraim receive, And ashamed is Israel of its own counsel.
7As for Samaria, her king is cut off as the foam upon the water.Cut off is Samaria! Its king `is' as a chip on the face of the waters.
8The high places also of Aven, the sin of Israel, shall be destroyed: the thorn and the thistle shall come up on their altars; and they shall say to the mountains, Cover us; and to the hills, Fall on us.And destroyed have been high places of Aven, the sin of Israel. Thorn and bramble go up on their altars, And they have said to hills, Cover us, And to heights, Fall upon us.
9O Israel, thou hast sinned from the days of Gibeah: there they stood: the battle in Gibeah against the children of iniquity did not overtake them.From the days of Gibeah thou hast sinned, O Israel, There they have stood, Not overtake them in Gibeah doth battle, Because of sons of perverseness.
10It is in my desire that I should chastise them; and the people shall be gathered against them, when they shall bind themselves in their two furrows.When I desire, then I do bind them, And gathered against them have peoples, When they bind themselves to their two iniquities.
11And Ephraim is as an heifer that is taught, and loveth to tread out the corn; but I passed over upon her fair neck: I will make Ephraim to ride; Judah shall plow, and Jacob shall break his clods.And Ephraim `is' a trained heifer -- loving to thresh, And I -- I have passed over on the goodness of its neck, I cause `one' to ride Ephraim, Plough doth Judah, harrow for him doth Jacob.
12Sow to yourselves in righteousness, reap in mercy; break up your fallow ground: for it is time to seek the LORD, till he come and rain righteousness upon you.Sow for yourselves in righteousness, Reap according to loving-kindness, Till for yourselves tillage of knowledge, To seek Jehovah, Till he come and shew righteousness to you.
13Ye have plowed wickedness, ye have reaped iniquity; ye have eaten the fruit of lies: because thou didst trust in thy way, in the multitude of thy mighty men.Ye have ploughed wickedness, Perversity ye have reaped, Ye have eaten the fruit of lying, For thou hast trusted in thy way, In the abundance of thy might.
14Therefore shall a tumult arise among thy people, and all thy fortresses shall be spoiled, as Shalman spoiled Betharbel in the day of battle: the mother was dashed in pieces upon her children.And rise doth a tumult among thy people, And all thy fortresses are spoiled, As the spoiling of Shalman of Beth-Arbel, In a day of battle, Mother against sons dashed in pieces.
15So shall Bethel do unto you because of your great wickedness: in a morning shall the king of Israel utterly be cut off.Thus hath Beth-El done to you, Because of the evil of your wickedness, In the dawn cut off utterly is a king of Israel!

Hosea chapter 11 (12 verses) - "When Israel was a child, I loved him. But the sword shall devour them. How can I give you up, O Ephraim? I will bring them home."1

KJVYLTNotes
1When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.Because Israel `is' a youth, and I love him, Out of Egypt I have called for My Son.
2As they called them, so they went from them: they sacrificed unto Baalim, and burned incense to graven images.They have called to them rightly, They have gone from before them, To lords they do sacrifice, And to graven images they make perfume.
3I taught Ephraim also to go, taking them by their arms; but they knew not that I healed them.And I have caused Ephraim to go on foot, Taking them by their arms, And they have not known that I strengthened them.
4I drew them with cords of a man, with bands of love: and I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, and I laid meat unto them.With cords of man I do draw them, With thick cords of love, And I am to them as a raiser up of a yoke on their jaws, And I incline unto him -- I feed `him'.
5He shall not return into the land of Egypt, and the Assyrian shall be his king, because they refused to return.He turneth not back unto the land of Egypt, And Asshur -- he `is' his king, For they have refused to return.
6And the sword shall abide on his cities, and shall consume his branches, and devour them, because of their own counsels.Grievous hath been the sword in his cities, And it hath ended his bars, and consumed -- from their own counsels.
7And my people are bent to backsliding from me: though they called them to the most High, none at all would exalt him.And My people are hanging in suspense, about My returning, And unto the Most High they do call, Together they exalt not.
8How shall I give thee up, Ephraim? how shall I deliver thee, Israel? how shall I make thee as Admah? how shall I set thee as Zeboim? mine heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together.How do I give thee up, O Ephraim? Do I deliver thee up, O Israel? How do I make thee as Admah? Do I set thee as Zeboim? Turned in Me is My heart, kindled together have been My repentings.
9I will not execute the fierceness of mine anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim: for I am God, and not man; the Holy One in the midst of thee: and I will not enter into the city.I do not the fierceness of My anger, I turn not back to destroy Ephraim, For God I `am', and not a man. In thy midst the Holy One, and I enter not in enmity,
10They shall walk after the LORD: he shall roar like a lion: when he shall roar, then the children shall tremble from the west.After Jehovah they go -- as a lion He roareth, When He doth roar, then tremble do the sons from the west.
11They shall tremble as a bird out of Egypt, and as a dove out of the land of Assyria: and I will place them in their houses, saith the LORD.They tremble as a sparrow out of Egypt, And as a dove out of the land of Asshur, And I have caused them to dwell in their own houses, An affirmation of Jehovah.
12Ephraim compasseth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit: but Judah yet ruleth with God, and is faithful with the saints.Compassed Me with feigning hath Ephraim, And with deceit the house of Israel. And Judah again is ruling with God, And with the Holy Ones `is' faithful!

Hosea chapter 12 (14 verses) - "Jacob fought with God. Ephraim has said, 'I am rich.' But I am the LORD. I spoke through the prophets." The LORD will repay Ephraim.1

KJVYLTNotes
1Ephraim feedeth on wind, and followeth after the east wind: he daily increaseth lies and desolation; and they do make a covenant with the Assyrians, and oil is carried into Egypt.Ephraim is enjoying wind, And is pursuing an east wind, All the day lying and spoiling he multiplieth, And a covenant with Asshur they make, And oil to Egypt is carried.
2The LORD hath also a controversy with Judah, and will punish Jacob according to his ways; according to his doings will he recompense him.And a controversy hath Jehovah with Judah, To lay a charge on Jacob according to his ways, According to his doings He returneth to him.
3He took his brother by the heel in the womb, and by his strength he had power with God:In the womb he took his brother by the heel, And by his strength he was a prince with God,
4Yea, he had power over the angel, and prevailed: he wept, and made supplication unto him: he found him in Bethel, and there he spake with us;Yea, he is a prince unto the Messenger, And he overcometh `by' weeping, And he maketh supplication to Him, At Bethel He doth find him, And there He doth speak with us,
5Even the LORD God of hosts; the LORD is his memorial.Even Jehovah, God of the Hosts, Jehovah `is' His memorial.
6Therefore turn thou to thy God: keep mercy and judgment and wait on thy God continually.And thou, through thy God, dost turn, Kindness and judgment keep thou, And wait on thy God continually.
7He is a merchant, the balances of deceit are in his hand: he loveth to oppress.Canaan! in his hand `are' balances of deceit! To oppress he hath loved.
8And Ephraim said, Yet I am become rich, I have found me out substance: in all my labours they shall find none iniquity in me that were sin.And Ephraim saith: `Surely I have become rich, I have found wealth for myself, All my labours -- they find not against me iniquity that `is' sin.'
9And I that am the LORD thy God from the land of Egypt will yet make thee to dwell in tabernacles, as in the days of the solemn feast.And I -- Jehovah thy God from the land of Egypt, Again do I turn thee back into tents, As in the days of the appointed time.
10I have also spoken by the prophets, and I have multiplied visions, and used similitudes, by the ministry of the prophets.And I have spoken unto the prophets, And I have multiplied vision, And by the hand of the prophets I use similes.
11Is there iniquity in Gilead? surely they are vanity: they sacrifice bullocks in Gilgal; yea, their altars are as heaps in the furrows of the fields.Surely Gilead `is' iniquity, Only, vanity they have been, In Gilead bullocks they have sacrificed, Also their altars `are' as heaps, on the furrows of a field.
12And Jacob fled into the country of Syria, and Israel served for a wife, and for a wife he kept sheep.And Jacob doth flee to the country of Aram, And Israel doth serve for a wife, Yea, for a wife he hath kept watch.
13And by a prophet the LORD brought Israel out of Egypt, and by a prophet was he preserved.And by a prophet hath Jehovah brought up Israel out of Egypt, And by a prophet it hath been watched.
14Ephraim provoked him to anger most bitterly: therefore shall he leave his blood upon him, and his reproach shall his LORD return unto him.Ephraim hath provoked most bitterly, And his blood on himself he leaveth, And his reproach turn back to him doth his Lord!

Hosea chapter 13 (16 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.When Ephraim speaketh tremblingly, He hath been lifted up in Israel, When he becometh guilty in Baal he dieth.

Hosea 13:16: See Endorsement of Violence and Murder in the Old Testament

Hosea 13:16 appears on Endorsement of Violence and Murder in the Old Testament: 1. Mass Murder and Genocide

Hosea 13:16 is referenced on Is the Christian God Evil? Evidence from Scripture and Nature: 1.5. Violence and Murder Endorsed in the Old Testament

Hosea 13:16 is discussed on Christian Moral Theory and Morality in Action: Biblical Morals and Social Disaster: 5.1. Violence and Murder Endorsed in the Bible

Hosea 13:16: See Religious Extremism

Hosea 13:16 is referenced on Fundamentalist Judaism and Jewish Terrorism

2And now they sin more and more, and have made them molten images of their silver, and idols according to their own understanding, all of it the work of the craftsmen: they say of them, Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves.And now do they add to sin, And make to them a molten image of their silver, By their own understanding -- idols, A work of artizans -- all of it, Of them they say, who `are' sacrificers among men, `The calves let them kiss.'
3Therefore they shall be as the morning cloud and as the early dew that passeth away, as the chaff that is driven with the whirlwind out of the floor, and as the smoke out of the chimney.Therefore they are as a cloud of the morning, And as dew, rising early, going away, As chaff tossed about out of a floor, And as smoke out of a window.
4Yet I am the LORD thy God from the land of Egypt, and thou shalt know no god but me: for there is no saviour beside me.And I `am' Jehovah thy God from the land of Egypt, And a God besides Me thou dost not know, And a Saviour -- there is none save Me.
5I did know thee in the wilderness, in the land of great drought.I -- I have known thee in a wilderness, In a land of droughts.
6According to their pasture, so were they filled; they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten me.According to their feedings they are satiated, They have been satiated, And their heart is lifted up, Therefore they have forgotten Me,
7Therefore I will be unto them as a lion: as a leopard by the way will I observe them:And I am to them as a lion, As a leopard by the way I look out.
8I will meet them as a bear that is bereaved of her whelps, and will rend the caul of their heart, and there will I devour them like a lion: the wild beast shall tear them.I do meet them as a bereaved bear, And I rend the enclosure of their heart.
9O Israel, thou hast destroyed thyself; but in me is thine help.And I consume them there as a lioness, A beast of the field doth rend them.
10I will be thy king: where is any other that may save thee in all thy cities? and thy judges of whom thou saidst, Give me a king and princes?Thou hast destroyed thyself, O Israel, But in Me `is' thy help, Where `is' thy king now -- And he doth save thee in all thy cities? And thy judges of whom thou didst say, `Give to me a king and heads?'
11I gave thee a king in mine anger, and took him away in my wrath.I give to thee a king in Mine anger, And I take away in My wrath.
12The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up; his sin is hid.Bound up `is' the iniquity of Ephraim, Hidden `is' his sin,
13The sorrows of a travailing woman shall come upon him: he is an unwise son; for he should not stay long in the place of the breaking forth of children.Pangs of a travailing woman come to him, He `is' a son not wise, For he remaineth not the time for the breaking forth of sons.
14I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction: repentance shall be hid from mine eyes.From the hand of Sheol I do ransom them, From death I redeem them, Where `is' thy plague, O death? Where thy destruction, O Sheol? Repentance is hid from Mine eyes.
15Though he be fruitful among his brethren, an east wind shall come, the wind of the LORD shall come up from the wilderness, and his spring shall become dry, and his fountain shall be dried up: he shall spoil the treasure of all pleasant vessels.Though he among brethren produceth fruit, Come in doth an east wind, a wind of Jehovah, From a wilderness it is coming up, And it drieth up his fountain, And become dry doth his spring, It -- it spoileth a treasure -- every desirable vessel.
16Samaria shall become desolate; for she hath rebelled against her God: they shall fall by the sword: their infants shall be dashed in pieces, and their women with child shall be ripped up.Become desolate doth Samaria, Because she hath rebelled against her God, By sword they do fall, Their sucklings are dashed in pieces, And its pregnant ones are ripped up!

Hosea chapter 14 (9 verses) - O Israel, return to the LORD. "I will heal their apostasy. They shall blossom like the vine. Whoever is wise, let him understand."1

KJVYLTNotes
1O israel, return unto the LORD thy God; for thou hast fallen by thine iniquity.Turn back, O Israel, unto Jehovah thy God, For thou hast stumbled by thine iniquity.
2Take with you words, and turn to the LORD: say unto him, Take away all iniquity, and receive us graciously: so will we render the calves of our lips.Take with you words, and turn to Jehovah, Say ye unto Him: `Take away all iniquity, and give good, And we do render the fruit of our lips.
3Asshur shall not save us; we will not ride upon horses: neither will we say any more to the work of our hands, Ye are our gods: for in thee the fatherless findeth mercy.Asshur doth not save us, on a horse we ride not, Nor do we say any more, Our God, to the work of our hands, For in Thee find mercy doth the fatherless.'
4I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely: for mine anger is turned away from him.I heal their backsliding, I love them freely, For turned back hath Mine anger from him.
5I will be as the dew unto Israel: he shall grow as the lily, and cast forth his roots as Lebanon.I am as dew to Israel, he flourisheth as a lily, And he striketh forth his roots as Lebanon.
6His branches shall spread, and his beauty shall be as the olive tree, and his smell as Lebanon.Go on do his sucklings, And his beauty is as an olive, And he hath fragrance as Lebanon.
7They that dwell under his shadow shall return; they shall revive as the corn, and grow as the vine: the scent thereof shall be as the wine of Lebanon.Return do the dwellers under his shadow, They revive `as' corn, and flourish as a vine, His memorial `is' as wine of Lebanon.
8Ephraim shall say, What have I to do any more with idols? I have heard him, and observed him: I am like a green fir tree. From me is thy fruit found.O Ephraim, what to Me any more with idols? I -- I afflicted, and I cause him to sing: `I `am' as a green fir-tree,' From Me is thy fruit found.
9Who is wise, and he shall understand these things? prudent, and he shall know them? for the ways of the LORD are right, and the just shall walk in them: but the transgressors shall fall therein.Who `is' wise, and doth understand these? Prudent, and knoweth them? For upright are the ways of Jehovah, And the righteous go on in them, And the transgressors stumble therein!

Current edition: 2012 Jul 14
http://www.holybooks.info/hosea.html
Parent page: Hebrew Scriptures and Christian Holy Bibles Across Different Traditions

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The Bible (NIV). The NIV is the best translation for accuracy whilst maintaining readability. Multiple authors, a compendium of multiple previously published books. I prefer to take quotes from the NIV but where I quote the Bible en masse I must quote from the KJV because it is not copyrighted, whilst the NIV is. Book Review.

Footnotes

  1. "Brad Warden Chapter Summaries" (not dated) accessed 2013 May 26.^^^^^^^^^

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