The Human Truth Foundation

Galatians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Galatians

By Vexen Crabtree 2012

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Protestant Bibles
Title: Galatians
Section: New Testament

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Catholic Bible
Title: Galatians
Section: New Testament

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Eastern Orthodox Bibles
Title: Galatians
Section: New Testament

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Rejected by:
Jewish Tanakh

Chapters in Galatians:
1  2  3  4  5  6 
Total verses: 149

Written especially against those who say that Christians must abide by OT Jewish law.

13 of the books of the Christian New Testament are the epistles (letters) of St. Paul, and Paul is the earliest and first Christian author for which we have historical writings1. Seven were probably written by Paul himself and six others have been written in his name by (anonymous) followers, some up to 80 years after his death. By the time the official Bible canon was produced, no-one knew that only some were genuine. The historical Paul probably did write 1 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians, Philippians, Philemon and Romans. Letters forged in the name of Paul are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Ephesians, Colossians and 2 Thessalonians.2. Paul was born in Tarsus as "Saul" and adopted the name of Paul after converting to what is now Christianity. He was an early leader of the growing Christian churches around the Roman Empire, and the writings of St. Paul are the earliest existing Christian writings known to historians. Despite this, Paul never met Jesus and appears to rely mostly on Greek myths and legends, many of which he copied, placing Jesus at the center of them instead of their original heroes.

"St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism" by Vexen Crabtree (1999)


2. The Contradictions Between Acts and Galatians

3. Contradictions Between Acts and Galatians

#christianity

When Paul converted from a persecutor of Christians into a believer in Jesus, many people continued not to trust him. He had to plead, and to have others speak on his behalf, in order for other believers to start to come to accept him. This level of unease amongst people around Paul could only be dismissed through one story: The story of how Paul converted to Christianity and what he done afterwards. Many of his actions after the conversion are told in by Paul in Galatians 1:11-12,17-24 and 2:1-21. Yet nearly every detail is communicated wrongly by the author of Acts - these are parts of the story that Paul must have explained to people over and over, in multiple locations, in multiple arguments. Yet the author of Luke & Acts was apparently not paying much attention! Bart Ehrman mentions a few of these contradictions, including ones surrounding the conversion story:

3.1. Who Did Paul Talk To After His Conversion?

#judaism

In Galatians, after Paul is called by God, he speaks to no-one, and goes into Arabia before returning to Damascus (which is where he was, originally). He doesn't go to Jerusalem for 3 years, and aside from James, and he specifically tells us that he spoke to none of the other disciples. But in Acts he is on the road to Damascus and after his conversion Paul is, it says, blinded, and goes straight to the city to meet a disciple in Damascus called Ananias, who restores his sight. He then goes to Jerusalem to meet all of the disciples.

Galatians 1:15-18Acts 9:3-26

[After being called by God] I conferred not with flesh and blood: neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days.

He came near Damascus: and suddenly there shined round about him a light from heaven. [...] The Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do. [...] And Saul arose from the earth; and when his eyes were opened, he saw no man: but they led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. And he was three days without sight, and neither did eat nor drink. And there was a certain disciple at Damascus, named Ananias [... who] putting his hands on [Paul...] and he received sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized. And when he had received meat, he was strengthened.

But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother.

Then was Saul certain days with the disciples which were at Damascus. [...] And when Saul was come to Jerusalem, he assayed to join himself to the disciples.

There are other differences between Acts and Galatians that are even harder to reconcile. Here I'll mention just two. In Galatians Paul tries to convince his Gentile readers that it would be an enormous mistake if they were to become circumsized and begin following the Jewish law. He wants to insist that his understanding of this matter came directly from God [and not] from those who were apostles before him, Peter, James and the others. In fact, he stresses, after the vision of Christ that converted him, he did not even go to Jerusalem to talk with the apostles. He went away into Arabia, then back to Damascus, and did not go to Jerusalem for another three years (1:15-19). This makes the story of Paul's conversion in the book of Acts very interesting. Here we are told that Paul is blinded by his vision of Jesus on the road to Damascus; he then enters the city and regains his sight. And what's the very first thing he does when he leaves town? He makes a beeline straight to Jerusalem to see the apostles (Acts 9:1-26).

Moreover, whom does he see there? Paul insists in Galatians 1:18-19 that in his fifteen-day visit he saw only two people, Peter and James, the brother of Jesus [and Paul swears this is true by oath] (1:19-20). [In Acts] when Paul arrives in Jerusalem directly after being converted, he meets with apostles and spends some time among them - not just with Peter and James, but apparently with all of them (9:26-30).

"Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)3

3.2. Further Issues

Whereas Acts is quite clear that Peter realized, even before Paul did, that it was a good and right thing to share meals with Gentiles who did not keep kosher, in Galatians 2 this is precisely what Peter refuses to do when Jewish 'brothers' show up in town."

"Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)3

Links:

1. The 6 chapters of Galatians (149 verses)

Galatians chapter 1 (24 verses) - Paul greets churches in Galatia; there is only one gospel; gospel is from God, not humans; Paul's early life & testimony4

KJVYLTNotes
1Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)Paul, an apostle -- not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who did raise him out of the dead --

Galatians 1:11-12,17-24 is referenced on Acts - The Acts of the Apostles: 3. Contradictions Between Acts and Galatians

Galatians 1:12-13,15-17: Acts - The Acts of the Apostles: 2. Two Different Conversion Stories of St Paul

Galatians 1:13 is mentioned on St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 2.1. The Conversion

Galatians 1:15-16 is mentioned on St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 2.1. The Conversion

Galatians 1:15-18 comments: Acts - The Acts of the Apostles: 3.1. Who Did Paul Talk To After His Conversion?

Some comments on Galatians 1:15-19 are on Acts - The Acts of the Apostles: 3.1. Who Did Paul Talk To After His Conversion?

Galatians 1:18-19 appears on Acts - The Acts of the Apostles: 3.1. Who Did Paul Talk To After His Conversion?

Galatians 1:19: God's Methods of Communication: Universal Truth Versus Hebrew and Arabic: 9.2. Does the New Testament Represent a New Revelation Which Overrides the Jewish Scriptures?

Some comments on Galatians 1:19 are on Biblical Dress Codes: God's Laws on Clothes: 3. All Laws of the Bible Must be Followed, Both Old and New

Some comments on Galatians 1:19 are on The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?: 1. The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?

Galatians 1:19: The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?: 2. The History of the Debate

Galatians 1:19-20 is discussed on Acts - The Acts of the Apostles: 3.1. Who Did Paul Talk To After His Conversion?

2And all the brethren which are with me, unto the churches of Galatia:and all the brethren with me, to the assemblies of Galatia:
3Grace be to you and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ,Grace to you, and peace from God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ,
4Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father:who did give himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of the present evil age, according to the will of God even our Father,
5To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.to whom `is' the glory to the ages of the ages. Amen.
6I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:I wonder that ye are so quickly removed from Him who did call you in the grace of Christ to another good news;
7Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ.that is not another, except there be certain who are troubling you, and wishing to pervert the good news of the Christ;
8But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.but even if we or a messenger out of heaven may proclaim good news to you different from what we did proclaim to you -- anathema let him be!
9As we said before, so say I now again, if any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed.as we have said before, and now say again, If any one to you may proclaim good news different from what ye did receive -- anathema let him be!
10For do I now persuade men, or God? or do I seek to please men? for if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ.for now men do I persuade, or God? or do I seek to please men? for if yet men I did please -- Christ's servant I should not be.
11But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man.And I make known to you, brethren, the good news that were proclaimed by me, that it is not according to man,
12For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.for neither did I from man receive it, nor was I taught `it', but through a revelation of Jesus Christ,
13For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it:for ye did hear of my behaviour once in Judaism, that exceedingly I was persecuting the assembly of God, and wasting it,
14And profited in the Jews' religion above many my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers.and I was advancing in Judaism above many equals in age in mine own race, being more abundantly zealous of my fathers' deliverances,
15But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace,and when God was well pleased -- having separated me from the womb of my mother, and having called `me' through His grace --
16To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the heathen; immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood:to reveal His Son in me, that I might proclaim him good news among the nations, immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood,
17Neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus.nor did I go up to Jerusalem unto those who were apostles before me, but I went away to Arabia, and again returned to Damascus,
18Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days.then, after three years I went up to Jerusalem to enquire about Peter, and remained with him fifteen days,
19But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother.and other of the apostles I did not see, except James, the brother of the Lord.
20Now the things which I write unto you, behold, before God, I lie not.And the things that I write to you, lo, before God -- I lie not;
21Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia;then I came to the regions of Syria and of Cilicia,
22And was unknown by face unto the churches of Judaea which were in Christ:and was unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea, that `are' in Christ,
23But they had heard only, That he which persecuted us in times past now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed.and only they were hearing, that `he who is persecuting us then, doth now proclaim good news -- the faith that then he was wasting;'
24And they glorified God in me.and they were glorifying God in me.

Galatians chapter 2 (21 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1Then fourteen years after I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, and took Titus with me also.Then, after fourteen years again I went up to Jerusalem with Barnabas, having taken with me also Titus;

Galatians 2:1-21 is referenced on Acts - The Acts of the Apostles: 3. Contradictions Between Acts and Galatians

Galatians 2:12: God's Methods of Communication: Universal Truth Versus Hebrew and Arabic: 9.2. Does the New Testament Represent a New Revelation Which Overrides the Jewish Scriptures?

Galatians 2:12 comments: Biblical Dress Codes: God's Laws on Clothes: 3. All Laws of the Bible Must be Followed, Both Old and New

Galatians 2:12 is discussed on The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?: 1. The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?

Galatians 2:12 is discussed on The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?: 2. The History of the Debate

2And I went up by revelation, and communicated unto them that gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, in vain.and I went up by revelation, and did submit to them the good news that I preach among the nations, and privately to those esteemed, lest in vain I might run or did run;
3But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised:but not even Titus, who `is' with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised --
4And that because of false brethren unawares brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage:and `that' because of the false brethren brought in unawares, who did come in privily to spy out our liberty that we have in Christ Jesus, that us they might bring under bondage,
5To whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you.to whom not even for an hour we gave place by subjection, that the truth of the good news might remain to you.
6But of these who seemed to be somewhat, (whatsoever they were, it maketh no matter to me: God accepteth no man's person:) for they who seemed to be somewhat in conference added nothing to me:And from those who were esteemed to be something -- whatever they were then, it maketh no difference to me -- the face of man God accepteth not, for -- to me those esteemed did add nothing,
7But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter;but, on the contrary, having seen that I have been entrusted with the good news of the uncircumcision, as Peter with `that' of the circumcision,
8(For he that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty in me toward the Gentiles:)for He who did work with Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, did work also in me in regard to the nations,
9And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.and having known the grace that was given to me, James, and Cephas, and John, who were esteemed to be pillars, a right hand of fellowship they did give to me, and to Barnabas, that we to the nations, and they to the circumcision `may go',
10Only they would that we should remember the poor; the same which I also was forward to do.only, of the poor that we should be mindful, which also I was diligent -- this very thing -- to do.
11But when Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed.And when Peter came to Antioch, to the face I stood up against him, because he was blameworthy,
12For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.for before the coming of certain from James, with the nations he was eating, and when they came, he was withdrawing and separating himself, fearing those of the circumcision,
13And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation.and dissemble with him also did the other Jews, so that also Barnabas was carried away by their dissimulation.
14But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews?But when I saw that they are not walking uprightly to the truth of the good news, I said to Peter before all, `If thou, being a Jew, in the manner of the nations dost live, and not in the manner of the Jews, how the nations dost thou compel to Judaize?
15We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles,we by nature Jews, and not sinners of the nations,
16Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.having known also that a man is not declared righteous by works of law, if not through the faith of Jesus Christ, also we in Christ Jesus did believe, that we might be declared righteous by the faith of Christ, and not by works of law, wherefore declared righteous by works of law shall be no flesh.'
17But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners, is therefore Christ the minister of sin? God forbid.And if, seeking to be declared righteous in Christ, we ourselves also were found sinners, `is' then Christ a ministrant of sin? let it not be!
18For if I build again the things which I destroyed, I make myself a transgressor.for if the things I threw down, these again I build up, a transgressor I set myself forth;
19For I through the law am dead to the law, that I might live unto God.for I through law, did die, that to God I may live;
20I am crucified with Christ: neverthless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.with Christ I have been crucified, and live no more do I, and Christ doth live in me; and that which I now live in the flesh -- in the faith I live of the Son of God, who did love me and did give himself for me;
21I do not frustrate the grace of God: for if righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain.I do not make void the grace of God, for if righteousness `be' through law -- then Christ died in vain.

Galatians chapter 3 (29 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?O thoughtless Galatians, who did bewitch you, not to obey the truth -- before whose eyes Jesus Christ was described before among you crucified?

Galatians 3:13: SAB: Are the laws of the Old Testament still binding? Some Bible Verses Say Yes, Others Say No

Some comments on Galatians 3:13 are on Ephesians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians: 4.3. Ephesians 6:1-2 (Obey and Honour Your Parents) Contradictions

Galatians 3:13 is referenced on God's Methods of Communication: Universal Truth Versus Hebrew and Arabic: 9.2. Does the New Testament Represent a New Revelation Which Overrides the Jewish Scriptures?

Some comments on Galatians 3:13 are on Biblical Dress Codes: God's Laws on Clothes: 3. All Laws of the Bible Must be Followed, Both Old and New

Galatians 3:13: See The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?: 1. The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?

Galatians 3:24-25: SAB: Are the laws of the Old Testament still binding? Some Bible Verses Say Yes, Others Say No

2This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?this only do I wish to learn from you -- by works of law the Spirit did ye receive, or by the hearing of faith?
3Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?so thoughtless are ye! having begun in the Spirit, now in the flesh do ye end?
4Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if it be yet in vain.so many things did ye suffer in vain! if, indeed, even in vain.
5He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?He, therefore, who is supplying to you the Spirit, and working mighty acts among you -- by works of law or by the hearing of faith `is it'?
6Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.according as Abraham did believe God, and it was reckoned to him -- to righteousness;
7Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham.know ye, then, that those of faith -- these are sons of Abraham,
8And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.and the Writing having foreseen that by faith God doth declare righteous the nations did proclaim before the good news to Abraham --
9So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham.`Blessed in thee shall be all the nations;' so that those of faith are blessed with the faithful Abraham,
10For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.for as many as are of works of law are under a curse, for it hath been written, `Cursed `is' every one who is not remaining in all things that have been written in the Book of the Law -- to do them,'
11But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith.and that in law no one is declared righteous with God, is evident, because `The righteous by faith shall live;'
12And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.and the law is not by faith, but -- `The man who did them shall live in them.'
13Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:Christ did redeem us from the curse of the law, having become for us a curse, for it hath been written, `Cursed is every one who is hanging on a tree,'
14That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.that to the nations the blessing of Abraham may come in Christ Jesus, that the promise of the Spirit we may receive through the faith.
15Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man's covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.Brethren, as a man I say `it', even of man a confirmed covenant no one doth make void or doth add to,
16Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.and to Abraham were the promises spoken, and to his seed; He doth not say, `And to seeds,' as of many, but as of one, `And to thy seed,' which is Christ;
17And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.and this I say, A covenant confirmed before by God to Christ, the law, that came four hundred and thirty years after, doth not set aside, to make void the promise,
18For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.for if by law `be' the inheritance, `it is' no more by promise, but to Abraham through promise did God grant `it'.
19Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.Why, then, the law? on account of the transgressions it was added, till the seed might come to which the promise hath been made, having been set in order through messengers in the hand of a mediator --
20Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one.and the mediator is not of one, and God is one --
21Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.the law, then, `is' against the promises of God? -- let it not be! for if a law was given that was able to make alive, truly by law there would have been the righteousness,
22But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.but the Writing did shut up the whole under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ may be given to those believing.
23But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed.And before the coming of the faith, under law we were being kept, shut up to the faith about to be revealed,
24Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.so that the law became our child-conductor -- to Christ, that by faith we may be declared righteous,
25But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.and the faith having come, no more under a child-conductor are we,
26For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.for ye are all sons of God through the faith in Christ Jesus,
27For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.for as many as to Christ were baptized did put on Christ;
28There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.there is not here Jew or Greek, there is not here servant nor freeman, there is not here male and female, for all ye are one in Christ Jesus;
29And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.and if ye `are' of Christ then of Abraham ye are seed, and according to promise -- heirs.

Galatians chapter 4 (31 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1Now I say, That the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all;And I say, so long time as the heir is a babe, he differeth nothing from a servant -- being lord of all,

Galatians 4:4: The Gospel According to Saint Matthew: 2.1.2. Other Christians and Previous Christians Did Not Believe in the Virgin Birth

2But is under tutors and governors until the time appointed of the father.but is under tutors and stewards till the time appointed of the father,
3Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world:so also we, when we were babes, under the elements of the world were in servitude,
4But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,and when the fulness of time did come, God sent forth His Son, come of a woman, come under law,
5To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.that those under law he may redeem, that the adoption of sons we may receive;
6And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.and because ye are sons, God did send forth the spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, `Abba, Father!'
7Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.so that thou art no more a servant, but a son, and if a son, also an heir of God through Christ.
8Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.But then, indeed, not having known God, ye were in servitude to those not by nature gods,
9But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?and now, having known God -- and rather being known by God -- how turn ye again unto the weak and poor elements to which anew ye desire to be in servitude?
10Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years.days ye observe, and months, and times, and years!
11I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.I am afraid of you, lest in vain I did labour toward you.
12Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I am as ye are: ye have not injured me at all.Become as I `am' -- because I also `am' as ye brethren, I beseech you; to me ye did no hurt,
13Ye know how through infirmity of the flesh I preached the gospel unto you at the first.and ye have known that through infirmity of the flesh I did proclaim good news to you at the first,
14And my temptation which was in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected; but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.and my trial that `is' in my flesh ye did not despise nor reject, but as a messenger of God ye did receive me -- as Christ Jesus;
15Where is then the blessedness ye spake of? for I bear you record, that, if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them to me.what then was your happiness? for I testify to you, that if possible, your eyes having plucked out, ye would have given to me;
16Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?so that your enemy have I become, being true to you?
17They zealously affect you, but not well; yea, they would exclude you, that ye might affect them.they are zealous for you -- `yet' not well, but they wish to shut us out, that for them ye may be zealous;
18But it is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing, and not only when I am present with you.and `it is' good to be zealously regarded, in what is good, at all times, and not only in my being present with you;
19My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,my little children, of whom again I travail in birth, till Christ may be formed in you,
20I desire to be present with you now, and to change my voice; for I stand in doubt of you.and I was wishing to be present with you now, and to change my voice, because I am in doubt about you.
21Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?Tell me, ye who are willing to be under law, the law do ye not hear?
22For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman.for it hath been written, that Abraham had two sons, one by the maid-servant, and one by the free-woman,
23But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise.but he who `is' of the maid-servant, according to flesh hath been, and he who `is' of the free-woman, through the promise;
24Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar.which things are allegorized, for these are the two covenants: one, indeed, from mount Sinai, to servitude bringing forth, which is Hagar;
25For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.for this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and doth correspond to the Jerusalem that now `is', and is in servitude with her children,
26But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.and the Jerusalem above is the free-woman, which is mother of us all,
27For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband.for it hath been written, `Rejoice, O barren, who art not bearing; break forth and cry, thou who art not travailing, because many `are' the children of the desolate -- more than of her having the husband.'
28Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.And we, brethren, as Isaac, are children of promise,
29But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.but as then he who was born according to the flesh did persecute him according to the spirit, so also now;
30Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.but what saith the Writing? `Cast forth the maid-servant and her son, for the son of the maid-servant may not be heir with the son of the free-woman;'
31So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.then, brethren, we are not a maid-servant's children, but the free-woman's.

Galatians chapter 5 (26 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.In the freedom, then, with which Christ did make you free -- stand ye, and be not held fast again by a yoke of servitude;

Galatians 5:17: See Christianity and Sexuality: The Damaging Results of Faulty Teachings

Galatians 5:17 comments: The Peacock vs. the Ostrich - Religious Behaviour and Sexuality: 3. Christianity: The Anti-Sex Message of the Church Produces Sexual Dysfunction

Galatians 5:18 comments: SAB: Are the laws of the Old Testament still binding? Some Bible Verses Say Yes, Others Say No

Galatians 5:18 is referenced on Ephesians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians: 4.3. Ephesians 6:1-2 (Obey and Honour Your Parents) Contradictions

Galatians 5:18 is mentioned on God's Methods of Communication: Universal Truth Versus Hebrew and Arabic: 9.2. Does the New Testament Represent a New Revelation Which Overrides the Jewish Scriptures?

Galatians 5:18 is discussed on Biblical Dress Codes: God's Laws on Clothes: 3. All Laws of the Bible Must be Followed, Both Old and New

Galatians 5:18 is discussed on The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?: 1. The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?

Galatians 5:18 comments: The Gospel According to Saint Luke: 2. Contradictions and Mistakes

For more on Galatians 5:19-21 see Pascal's Wager is Safer in Reverse: Picking a Religion is Dangerous Business: 3.3. The Christian Bible - Believing the Wrong Things is a Ticket to Hell

2Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing.lo, I Paul do say to you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing;
3For I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.and I testify again to every man circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law;
4Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace.ye were freed from the Christ, ye who in law are declared righteous; from the grace ye fell away;
5For we through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.for we by the Spirit, by faith, a hope of righteousness do wait for,
6For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love.for in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, but faith through love working.
7Ye did run well; who did hinder you that ye should not obey the truth?Ye were running well; who did hinder you -- not to obey the truth?
8This persuasion cometh not of him that calleth you.the obedience `is' not of him who is calling you!
9A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.a little leaven the whole lump doth leaven;
10I have confidence in you through the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be.I have confidence in regard to you in the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise minded; and he who is troubling you shall bear the judgment, whoever he may be.
11And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased.And I, brethren, if uncircumcision I yet preach, why yet am I persecuted? then hath the stumbling-block of the cross been done away;
12I would they were even cut off which trouble you.O that even they would cut themselves off who are unsettling you!
13For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.For ye -- to freedom ye were called, brethren, only not the freedom for an occasion to the flesh, but through the love serve ye one another,
14For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.for all the law in one word is fulfilled -- in this: `Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself;'
15But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.and if one another ye do bite and devour, see -- that ye may not by one another be consumed.
16This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.And I say: In the Spirit walk ye, and the desire of the flesh ye may not complete;
17For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.for the flesh doth desire contrary to the Spirit, and the Spirit contrary to the flesh, and these are opposed one to another, that the things that ye may will -- these ye may not do;
18But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law.and if by the Spirit ye are led, ye are not under law.
19Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,And manifest also are the works of the flesh, which are: Adultery, whoredom, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
20Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, strifes, emulations, wraths, rivalries, dissensions, sects,
21Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.envyings, murders, drunkennesses, revellings, and such like, of which I tell you before, as I also said before, that those doing such things the reign of God shall not inherit.
22But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,And the fruit of the Spirit is: Love, joy, peace, long-suffering, kindness, goodness, faith,
23Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.meekness, temperance: against such there is no law;
24And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.and those who are Christ's, the flesh did crucify with the affections, and the desires;
25If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.if we may live in the Spirit, in the Spirit also we may walk;
26Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying one another.let us not become vain-glorious -- one another provoking, one another envying!

Galatians chapter 6 (18 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted.Brethren, if a man also may be overtaken in any trespass, ye who `are' spiritual restore such a one in a spirit of meekness, considering thyself -- lest thou also may be tempted;

Galatians 6:11 is referenced on St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 1.2. The Forged Letters Were Not the Result of a Secretary Writing Them for Him

2Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ.of one another the burdens bear ye, and so fill up the law of the Christ,
3For if a man think himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself.for if any one doth think `himself' to be something -- being nothing -- himself he doth deceive;
4But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another.and his own work let each one prove, and then in regard to himself alone the glorying he shall have, and not in regard to the other,
5For every man shall bear his own burden.for each one his own burden shall bear.
6Let him that is taught in the word communicate unto him that teacheth in all good things.And let him who is instructed in the word share with him who is instructing -- in all good things.
7Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.Be not led astray; God is not mocked; for what a man may sow -- that also he shall reap,
8For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.because he who is sowing to his own flesh, of the flesh shall reap corruption; and he who is sowing to the Spirit, of the Spirit shall reap life age-during;
9And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.and in the doing good we may not be faint-hearted, for at the proper time we shall reap -- not desponding;
10As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.therefore, then, as we have opportunity, may we work the good to all, and especially unto those of the household of the faith.
11Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you with mine own hand.Ye see in how large letters I have written to you with my own hand;
12As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ.as many as are willing to make a good appearance in the flesh, these constrain you to be circumcised -- only that for the cross of the Christ they may not be persecuted,
13For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh.for neither do those circumcised themselves keep the law, but they wish you to be circumcised, that in your flesh they may glory.
14But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.And for me, let it not be -- to glory, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which to me the world hath been crucified, and I to the world;
15For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.for in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation;
16And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.and as many as by this rule do walk -- peace upon them, and kindness, and on the Israel of God!
17From henceforth let no man trouble me: for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus.Henceforth, let no one give me trouble, for I the scars of the Lord Jesus in my body do bear.
18Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ `is' with your spirit, brethren! Amen.

Current edition: 2012 Jul 14
http://www.holybooks.info/galatians.html
Parent page: Hebrew Scriptures and Christian Holy Bibles Across Different Traditions

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References: (What's this?)

The Bible (NIV). The NIV is the best translation for accuracy whilst maintaining readability. Multiple authors, a compendium of multiple previously published books. I prefer to take quotes from the NIV but where I quote the Bible en masse I must quote from the KJV because it is not copyrighted, whilst the NIV is. Book Review.

Ehrman, Bart
(2003) Lost Christianities. Hardback book. Published by Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
(2011) Forged. Hardback book. Subtitled: "Writing in the Name of God - Why the Bible's Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are". Published by HarperCollins, New York, USA.

Footnotes

  1. Ehrman (2011) p180.^
  2. From www.ReligiousTolerance.org on 2002 August 19:
    "In his opinion, of the thirteen epistles which say that they were written by Paul, critical scholars have reached a near consensus that seven are Paul's: 1 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Philippians, Philemon and Romans.
    Agreement that he did not write:
    • 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus is about 90%
    • Ephesians is about 80%
    • Colossians is about 60%
    • 2 Thessalonians is a slight majority.
    "

    As an example, the historian Bart Ehrman notes in "Lost Christianities" that "the pastoral letters of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus [...] claim to be written by Paul, but appear to have been written long after his death"

    Yet other books are pseudonymous - forgeries by people who explicitly claim to be someone else. Included in this group is [...] probably the pastoral Epistles of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus, quite likely the deutero-Pauline Epistles of 2 Thessalonians, Colossians, and Ephesians, and possibly 1 Peter and Jude.

    "Lost Christianities" by Bart Ehrman (2003)5

    And,

    Virtually all scholars agree that seven of the Pauline letters are authentic: Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon. [...] The other six differ in significant ways from this core group of seven. Three of them - 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus - are so much alike that most scholars are convinced that they were written by the same person. The other three are usually assigned to three different authors.

    "Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)6

    ^
  3. Ehrman (2011) p204-205.^^
  4. www.biblesummary.info was host to a daily Twitter tweet from its author, each of which summarizes a chapter from the Bible. Accessed 2014 Feb.^
  5. Ehrman (2003) chapter 11 "The Invention of Scripture: The Formation of the Proto-orthodox New Testament" p235-236.^
  6. Ehrman (2011) p92. Added to this page on 2014 Jul 14.^

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