The Human Truth Foundation

Ephesians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians

By Vexen Crabtree 2017

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Included as holy:

Protestant Bibles
Title: Ephesians
Section: New Testament

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Next: Philippians

Catholic Bible
Title: Ephesians
Section: New Testament

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Next: Philippians

Eastern Orthodox Bibles
Title: Ephesians
Section: New Testament

Prev: Galatians
Next: Philippians

Rejected by:
Jewish Tanakh

Chapters in Ephesians:
1  2  3  4  5  6 
Total verses: 155

The epistle to the Ephesians was written between 80-100 CE by an unknown author. Although Ephesians 1:1 claims that it is written by Paul, it certainly was not1. It was also not written to Christians in Ephesus - that's a phrase that was added to later copies of the manuscript2,3. The letter doesn't have a clear recipient - it contains none of Paul's usual friendliness and the personal details revealed in his other letters. Paul is writing in order to convince gentiles that they can be Christians without having to adopt most Jewish laws. Wives are to submit to their husbands (Ephesians 5:22-24), children are to obey their parents (Ephesians 6:1) and servants are to obey their masters (Ephesians 6:5). The epistle is full of pleas for Christians to be unitary and have peace between themselves (i.e. Ephesians 4:1-3) - the requirement for such a call may be the reason that the letter was forged. For such a small text, Ephesians manages to rack up quite a number of inconsistencies: it isn't written in the same simple Greek that Paul speaks and does not know Paul's life; it contradicts some core teachings of Jesus and contradicts the writings of Paul in his other letters.


1. Introduction to the Pauline Letters and Evidence That Ephesians Was Forged4

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13 of the books of the Christian New Testament are the epistles (letters) of St. Paul, and Paul is the earliest and first Christian author for which we have historical writings5. Seven were probably written by Paul himself and six others have been written in his name by (anonymous) followers, some up to 80 years after his death. By the time the official Bible canon was produced, no-one knew that only some were genuine. The historical Paul probably did write 1 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians, Philippians, Philemon and Romans. Letters forged in the name of Paul are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Ephesians, Colossians and 2 Thessalonians.6. Paul was born in Tarsus as "Saul" and adopted the name of Paul after converting to what is now Christianity. He was an early leader of the growing Christian churches around the Roman Empire, and the writings of St. Paul are the earliest existing Christian writings known to historians. Despite this, Paul never met Jesus and appears to rely mostly on Greek myths and legends, many of which he copied, placing Jesus at the center of them instead of their original heroes.

"St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism" by Vexen Crabtree (1999)

Ephesians 1:1 makes the claim that the letter was written by Paul. It certainly was not. It was forged by someone in Paul's name. All ancient manuscripts differ from each other and the scribes that copied the letters made insertions and edits according to their own assumptions and beliefs. The ulterior motives and evidences for this in the case of the Ephesians are partially discussed on this page.

[Professor J. Christiaan Beker wrote a] massive and influential study of Paul's theology, one of the truly great studies ever to be published on the matter. Beker was thoroughly convinced that Paul had not written Ephesians. [...] Today the majority of biblical scholars agree. Ephesians may sound like Paul, but when you start digging a bit deeper, large differences and discrepancies appear. [...]

A number of scholars think that whoever forged Ephesians used Colossians as one of this sources for how Paul wrote. Unfortunately, he used a book that Paul almost certainly did not write. [...]

Paul usually writes in short, pointed sentences; the sentences in Ephesians are long and complex. In Greek, the opening statement of thanksgiving (1:3-14) - all twelve verses - is one sentence. [...] In the hundred or so sentences in Ephesians, 9 of them are over 50 words in length. Compare this with Paul's own letters. Philippians, for example, has 102 sentences, only 1 over 50 words. The book also has an inordinate number of words that don't otherwise occur in Paul's writings, 116 altogether, well higher than average.

"Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)1

The Catholic Encyclopedia iterates through several of the same shortcomings mentioned here and add some other details. The author of Ephesians engages in extended discussion of some themes that Paul doesn't expand upon in his other letters; Ephesians has a strong emphasis on the Church rather than on Christ (which makes sense if it was written later than expected). They do follow it up with some attempted justifications, but they are not convincing enough to reproduce here, and, research conducted since their Encyclopedia have anyway confirmed their concerns about Ephesians.

The doctrines on justification, the Law, faith, the flesh, etc., that are characteristic of the great Pauline Epistles, are not totally lacking in the Epistle to the Ephesians, being recognizable in chapter ii (1-16). However, the writer's subject does not lead him to develop these particular doctrines [...] [ + EXPAND + ]

This Epistle, even more than that to the Colossians, is remarkable for the length of its periods. The first three chapters contain hardly more than three sentences and these are overladen with relative or participial causes that are simply strung together, frequently without being connected by the logical particles that occur so frequently in St. Paul. Each particular clause is itself encumbered with numerous prepositional modifiers (especially with en and syn) of which it is difficult to state the exact meaning. Often, too, several synonyms are in juxtaposition and in very many cases a noun has an explanatory genitive, the sense of which differs but very slightly from that of the noun itself.

For all of these reasons the language of the Epistle, heavy, diffuse, and languid, seems very different from the dialectical, animated, and vigorous style of the Apostle's uncontested letters.

P. Ladeuze (1909)3

2. The Call to Unity Makes Sense Only a Generation After Paul's Time7

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The epistle is full of pleas for Christians to be unitary and to have peace between themselves. Chapter 4 in particular; Ephesians 4:3,13-14 says he is "endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit... till we all come in the unity of the faith... that we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine". It was clearly written during a time when multiple Christian communities were debating fiercely amongst themselves (see: Types of Christianity in History: Who Were the First Christians?). The requirement for a call to unity may be the reason that the letter was forged and why it was addressed to no-one in particular - it was a circular, designed to be passed around. Naturally the call to unity was joined with the addition of a few subtle points of theology to indicate which true church the others should be uniting under. History was written by the victors, as they say, and this forged letter was duly included in the New Testament canon because it agreed with the opinions of the Church that won the battle - the Cappadocian/Nicenes/Pauline Christianity that we know today.

See:

3. A Later Author Changed the Text to Add the Ephesians Reference7

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In all of Paul's letters he greets people he knows lovingly and addresses them personally; even when talking to strangers he is friendly and familiar with them. So, we should expect to find the same features in this epistle too. Very early in his career, Paul visited Ephesus for three months (Acts 18:19-21). The very next year, he visited again for three years - this duration is mentioned in his farewell words to them in Acts 20:18-25 - Acts 20:31 in particular.

But this letter is coldly impersonal - the author of this Epistle did not know anyone at Ephesus. Also the author wasn't adequate at copying Paul's friendliness. The Catholic Encyclopedia states honestly that "the examination of the Epistle does not warrant the belief that it was addressed to the church in which the Apostle had sojourned longest"3.

The confusion can be ended with some historical evidence. The earliest manuscripts of Ephesians do not contain the address "to the Ephesians". Over a hundred years ago it had already been noted that Codices B and Aleph lack the words 'en Epheso' from Ephesians 1:13. It was only added to later copies of the manuscript2. Also one of the first and earliest Christian communities were the Marcionites; their tutor, Marcion, had this epistle addressed to the Laodiceans2 and Catholic Encyclopedia suspect it was addressed to Churches in Asia Minor that were not well known to Paul.

The only solution is to submit to the historical evidence, and cede that this letter was written by a forger a generation later than traditionally accepted, and was forged before the time when there were authorised collections of St Paul's letters in circulation from which the author might have learnt how to write more like Paul. It might be tempting to think that because the "Ephesians reference" was added later, therefore, it doesn't matter that the epistle doesn't reflect the truth about Paul's stay in Ephesus - it wasn't addressed to them, so, it is not a contradiction that he doesn't greet them personally. But that doesn't make sense. The editor who changed the text of this manuscript to add "to the Ephesians" could have known that Paul had been to Ephesus and therefore the addition wouldn't make sense. Therefore, the later editor did not yet have a collection of the books of Paul.

Ephesians was written at a time when there were multiple fractious communities of Christians, which also indicates a later composition - scholars state 80-100CE.

4. Contradictions4

4.1. The Author of the Epistle to the Ephesians Did Not Know Paul Well8

In this forged letter, the author does not know Paul as well as we do now, with hindsight and with access to all of Paul's letters. So Ephesians says that Paul 'includes himself as someone who, before coming to Christ, was carried away by the 'passions of the flesh, doing the will of the flesh and senses.' This doesn't sound like the Paul of the undisputed letters, who says that he had been 'blameless' with respect to the 'righteousness of the law' (Phil. 3:4). There are other specific theological mistakes that the author of Ephesians makes with Pauline terminology.

"Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)1

Paul, who battled with the apostles, who was distrusted and dismissed by them, and who went out of his way to find alternate sources of legitimacy than personal discipleship, is not one to put the apostles on a pedestal. And yet in Ephesians 3:5 the author has Paul call the apostles "holy". This mistake confirms two things; (1) Ephesians was not written by Paul, and (2) it was written later. Richard Heard says it "sounds strange from Paul's pen, although natural to a writer of the next generation"9.

4.2. Ephesians Moves Future Events of the Second Coming to the Present8

Paul always says that believers will be saved, when Christ returns, by the grace of God. But in Ephesians the future tense of Paul is forgotten, and believers are said to have already been saved. Not so, according to Paul. Likewise, in Paul's teachings (Romans 6:1-4 and 1 Corinthians 15 for example), dead Christians will be raised at the end of time, to enjoy their afterlife. But again in Ephesians, the author has moved this into the past tense and says that dead Christians are already 'up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places' (2:5-6). This is precisely the view that Paul argued against in his letters to the Corinthians!

"Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)1

4.3. Ephesians 6:1-2 (Obey and Honour Your Parents) Contradictions8

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Ephesians 6:1-2 says "Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right. Honour thy father and mother; which is the first commandment with promise". But this text, written by someone in the name of Paul, manages to contradict Jesus and contradict the other letters of Paul.

But this isn't necessarily the vision of the rest of the New Testament.

Ephesians 6:1-2 Contradicts Jesus: The concept of "Honour Thy Parents" was washed away by Jesus in the New Testament. It contradicts Jesus, who says: "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father ... and a man's foes shall be they of his own household" (Matthew 10:34-37 and Luke 12:51-53). And in Luke 14:25-26 and 18:29, Jesus says "If any man comes to me without hating his father, mother, wife, children, brothers and sisters, yes and his own life too, he cannot be my disciple".

Jesus taught that Christian families must tear themselves apart, but, he also put into practice his dismissal of the family in his own personal life.

Jesus in Mark 3:31-35 leaves his "brethren and his mother" outside after they call for him; giving no reason at all for shunning them. He instead says that instead of his family, his fans were his brethren and mother. Luke 2:41-49 tells a story of a 12-year-old Jesus; he wonders off for three days and his parents search for him, before finding him in a temple. They exclaim to him that they've been looking for him sorrowfully, and his cold response is covered by the last two verses of that story: "How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business? And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them". In both places a little courtesy would have cost nothing. The lack of respect continues in another story in Luke:

When one of his women listeners was so entranced by his teaching that she cried out 'Happy the womb that bore you and the breasts that you sucked!' Jesus shrugged off this praise of his mother. She was irrelevant: 'Still happier those who hear the word of God and keep it.' (Luke 11:27-28).

"The Gospel According to Woman: Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in the West" by Karen Armstrong (1986)10

Jesus only speaks to his mother three times in the Bible. The first time is the story above, where he reprimands her for not guessing where he was (when he was 12). The second time, at the feast in Cana, Jesus says to his mum, "Woman, what have I to do with thee?". And the third time was during the crucifixtion, when he said to her: "woman, behold thy son". Not a single positive comment from Jesus to his mum11! In "The Woman's Bible" by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the author despairs at the misogyny, and asks:

How is it that not one word is said about the death of Mary, not one word about the death of Joseph? How did it happen that Christ did not visit his mother after his resurrection?

"The Woman's Bible" by Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1898)11

Ephesians 6:1-2 Contradicts Other Letters of Paul when it cites the commandments of the Old Testament "for this is right", and yet, the forger of Ephesians obviously didn't have Paul's letter to the Romans at hand, in which Paul says the Old Testament laws no longer apply (Romans 3:28, 6:14, 7:6 and Romans 10:4). Paul also dismisses the Old Testament in Galatians 3:13 and 5:18. And the same in Colossians 2:14 where Paul also says to obey your parents, and masters. But doesn't cite the Old Testament. The author of the Epistle to the Ephesians didn't have the full collections of Paul's letters as we do now, and didn't know just how much of the rest of Paul he was contradicting!

5. The 6 chapters of Ephesians (155 verses)

Ephesians chapter 1 (23 verses) - Before creating the world, God chose who to bless and save

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KJVYLTNotes
1Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus:Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, to the saints who are in Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus:

Ephesians 1:1 commented on above: Ephesians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians

Ephesians 1:1 commentary above: 1. Introduction to the Pauline Letters and Evidence That Ephesians Was Forged

Ephesians 1:1 commented on above: 3. A Later Author Changed the Text to Add the Ephesians Reference

Ephesians 1:3-6,11 appears on Is the Christian God Evil? Evidence from Scripture and Nature: 5. No Free Will in the New Testament

Ephesians 1:3-6,11 is mentioned on Biblical Christianity Denies Free Will

Ephesians 1:3-6,11 is discussed on Biblical Christianity Denies Free Will: 1.1. Ephesians

Ephesians 1:3-6,11 is mentioned on Monotheism and Free Will: God, Determinism and Fate

Ephesians 1:3-6,11: See The Illusion of Choice: Free Will and Determinism: 7.3. Free Will in the Christian Bible

Ephesians 1:3-14 commentary above: 1. Introduction to the Pauline Letters and Evidence That Ephesians Was Forged

Ephesians 1:7: See The Crucifixion Facade: 1.2. Did Jesus Die Because of Original Sin?

2Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.Grace to you, and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ!
3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ:Blessed `is' the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who did bless us in every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,
4According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:according as He did choose us in him before the foundation of the world, for our being holy and unblemished before Him, in love,
5Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,having foreordained us to the adoption of sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,
6To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.to the praise of the glory of His grace, in which He did make us accepted in the beloved,
7In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;in whom we have the redemption through his blood, the remission of the trespasses, according to the riches of His grace,
8Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence;in which He did abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence,
9Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself:having made known to us the secret of His will, according to His good pleasure, that He purposed in Himself,
10That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:in regard to the dispensation of the fulness of the times, to bring into one the whole in the Christ, both the things in the heavens, and the things upon the earth -- in him;
11In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:in whom also we did obtain an inheritance, being foreordained according to the purpose of Him who the all things is working according to the counsel of His will,
12That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ.for our being to the praise of His glory, `even' those who did first hope in the Christ,
13In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,in whom ye also, having heard the word of the truth -- the good news of your salvation -- in whom also having believed, ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise,
14Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.which is an earnest of our inheritance, to the redemption of the acquired possession, to the praise of His glory.
15Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints,Because of this I also, having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, and the love to all the saints,
16Cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers;do not cease giving thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers,
17That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him:that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of the glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the recognition of him,
18The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints,the eyes of your understanding being enlightened, for your knowing what is the hope of His calling, and what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints,
19And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power,and what the exceeding greatness of His power to us who are believing, according to the working of the power of His might,
20Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places,which He wrought in the Christ, having raised him out of the dead, and did set `him' at His right hand in the heavenly `places',
21Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:far above all principality, and authority, and might, and lordship, and every name named, not only in this age, but also in the coming one;
22And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church,and all things He did put under his feet, and did give him -- head over all things to the assembly,
23Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.which is his body, the fulness of Him who is filling the all in all,

Ephesians chapter 2 (22 verses) - Disobedience is Satanic. God saves us by our grace, not because of what we do

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KJVYLTNotes
1And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins;Also you -- being dead in the trespasses and the sins,

Ephesians 2:2,5-6 comments: St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 8. A Few of Paul's Funky Laws

Ephesians 2:4-10: Is the Christian God Evil? Evidence from Scripture and Nature: 5. No Free Will in the New Testament

Ephesians 2:4-10 is discussed on Biblical Christianity Denies Free Will

Ephesians 2:4-10 is discussed on Biblical Christianity Denies Free Will: 1.1. Ephesians

Ephesians 2:4-10: Monotheism and Free Will: God, Determinism and Fate

Ephesians 2:4-10 is mentioned on The Illusion of Choice: Free Will and Determinism: 7.3. Free Will in the Christian Bible

Ephesians 2:5-6 commented on above: 4.2. Ephesians Moves Future Events of the Second Coming to the Present

Ephesians 2:14-16 is mentioned on Biblical Dress Codes: God's Laws on Clothes: 3. All Laws of the Bible Must be Followed, Both Old and New

Ephesians 2:14-16 is referenced on The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?: 1. The Old Testament Versus the New Testament: Do Christians Still Have to Observe OT Law?

Some comments on Ephesians 2:14-16 are on The Gradual Instruction of Humankind by a Series of Prophets from God

Ephesians 2:15 is discussed on SAB: Are the laws of the Old Testament still binding? Some Bible Verses Say Yes, Others Say No

2Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:in which once ye did walk according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience,
3Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.among whom also we all did walk once in the desires of our flesh, doing the wishes of the flesh and of the thoughts, and were by nature children of wrath -- as also the others,
4But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,and God, being rich in kindness, because of His great love with which He loved us,
5Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)even being dead in the trespasses, did make us to live together with the Christ, (by grace ye are having been saved,)
6And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:and did raise `us' up together, and did seat `us' together in the heavenly `places' in Christ Jesus,
7That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.that He might show, in the ages that are coming, the exceeding riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus,
8For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:for by grace ye are having been saved, through faith, and this not of you -- of God the gift,
9Not of works, lest any man should boast.not of works, that no one may boast;
10For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.for of Him we are workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to good works, which God did before prepare, that in them we may walk.
11Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands;Wherefore, remember, that ye `were' once the nations in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that called Circumcision in the flesh made by hands,
12That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:that ye were at that time apart from Christ, having been alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of the promise, having no hope, and without God, in the world;
13But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ.and now, in Christ Jesus, ye being once afar off became nigh in the blood of the Christ,
14For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;for he is our peace, who did make both one, and the middle wall of the enclosure did break down,
15Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace;the enmity in his flesh, the law of the commands in ordinances having done away, that the two he might create in himself into one new man, making peace,
16And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby:and might reconcile both in one body to God through the cross, having slain the enmity in it,
17And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.and having come, he did proclaim good news -- peace to you -- the far-off and the nigh,
18For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.because through him we have the access -- we both -- in one Spirit unto the Father.
19Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;Then, therefore, ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow-citizens of the saints, and of the household of God,
20And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;being built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being chief corner-`stone',
21In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord:in whom all the building fitly framed together doth increase to an holy sanctuary in the Lord,
22In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.in whom also ye are builded together, for a habitation of God in the Spirit.

Ephesians chapter 3 (21 verses) - Divine secrets are now revealed: Non-Jews are allowed to be Christians

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KJVYLTNotes
1For this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles,For this cause, I Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for you the nations,

Ephesians 3:5 commentary above: 4.1. The Author of the Epistle to the Ephesians Did Not Know Paul Well

2If ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace of God which is given me to you-ward:if, indeed, ye did hear of the dispensation of the grace of God that was given to me in regard to you,
3How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words,that by revelation He made known to me the secret, according as I wrote before in few `words' --
4Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ)in regard to which ye are able, reading `it', to understand my knowledge in the secret of the Christ,
5Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it was now revealed to His holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit --
6That the Gentiles should be fellowheirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel:that the nations be fellow-heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of His promise in the Christ, through the good news,
7Whereof I was made a minister, according to the gift of the grace of God given unto me by the effectual working of his power.of which I became a ministrant, according to the gift of the grace of God that was given to me, according to the working of His power;
8Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ;to me -- the less than the least of all the saints -- was given this grace, among the nations to proclaim good news -- the untraceable riches of the Christ,
9And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ:and to cause all to see what `is' the fellowship of the secret that hath been hid from the ages in God, who the all things did create by Jesus Christ,
10To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God,that there might be made known now to the principalities and the authorities in the heavenly `places', through the assembly, the manifold wisdom of God,
11According to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord:according to a purpose of the ages, which He made in Christ Jesus our Lord,
12In whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him.in whom we have the freedom and the access in confidence through the faith of him,
13Wherefore I desire that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, which is your glory.wherefore, I ask `you' not to faint in my tribulations for you, which is your glory.
14For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,
15Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named,of whom the whole family in the heavens and on earth is named,
16That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man;that He may give to you, according to the riches of His glory, with might to be strengthened through His Spirit, in regard to the inner man,
17That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love,that the Christ may dwell through the faith in your hearts, in love having been rooted and founded,
18May be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height;that ye may be in strength to comprehend, with all the saints, what `is' the breadth, and length, and depth, and height,
19And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God.to know also the love of the Christ that is exceeding the knowledge, that ye may be filled -- to all the fulness of God;
20Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us,and to Him who is able above all things to do exceeding abundantly what we ask or think, according to the power that is working in us,
21Unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.to Him `is' the glory in the assembly in Christ Jesus, to all the generations of the age of the ages. Amen.

Ephesians chapter 4 (32 verses) - Please be united and stop fighting amongst yourselves as you are divided by every 'wind of doctrine'. Be nice

#christianity

KJVYLTNotes
1I therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called,Call upon you, then, do I -- the prisoner of the Lord -- to walk worthily of the calling with which ye were called,

Ephesians 4:1-3 commented on above: Ephesians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians

Ephesians 4:3,13-14 commented on above: 2. The Call to Unity Makes Sense Only a Generation After Paul's Time

Ephesians 4:24-25 comments: Instruct with Great Patience: How Christians Should Preach and Debate, According to the Bible

Ephesians 4:24-25: Scriptural Debating Style: Christians and Muslims Must be Patient and Courteous: 1. Christianity: With Patience, Gentleness and Respect

2With all lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering, forbearing one another in love;with all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one another in love,
3Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.being diligent to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of the peace;
4There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling;one body and one Spirit, according as also ye were called in one hope of your calling;
5One Lord, one faith, one baptism,one Lord, one faith, one baptism,
6One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.one God and Father of all, who `is' over all, and through all, and in you all,
7But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ.and to each one of you was given the grace, according to the measure of the gift of Christ,
8Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.wherefore, he saith, `Having gone up on high he led captive captivity, and gave gifts to men,' --
9(Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth?and that, he went up, what is it except that he also went down first to the lower parts of the earth?
10He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things.)he who went down is the same also who went up far above all the heavens, that He may fill all things --
11And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;and He gave some `as' apostles, and some `as' prophets, and some `as' proclaimers of good news, and some `as' shepherds and teachers,
12For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:unto the perfecting of the saints, for a work of ministration, for a building up of the body of the Christ,
13Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ:till we may all come to the unity of the faith and of the recognition of the Son of God, to a perfect man, to a measure of stature of the fulness of the Christ,
14That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive;that we may no more be babes, tossed and borne about by every wind of the teaching, in the sleight of men, in craftiness, unto the artifice of leading astray,
15But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ:and, being true in love, we may increase to Him `in' all things, who is the head -- the Christ;
16From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love.from whom the whole body, being fitly joined together and united, through the supply of every joint, according to the working in the measure of each single part, the increase of the body doth make for the building up of itself in love.
17This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind,This, then, I say, and I testify in the Lord; ye are no more to walk, as also the other nations walk, in the vanity of their mind,
18Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:being darkened in the understanding, being alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart,
19Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness.who, having ceased to feel, themselves did give up to the lasciviousness, for the working of all uncleanness in greediness;
20But ye have not so learned Christ;and ye did not so learn the Christ,
21If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus:if so be ye did hear him, and in him were taught, as truth is in Jesus;
22That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;ye are to put off concerning the former behaviour the old man, that is corrupt according to the desires of the deceit,
23And be renewed in the spirit of your mind;and to be renewed in the spirit of your mind,
24And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.and to put on the new man, which, according to God, was created in righteousness and kindness of the truth.
25Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour: for we are members one of another.Wherefore, putting away the lying, speak truth each with his neighbour, because we are members one of another;
26Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath:be angry and do not sin; let not the sun go down upon your wrath,
27Neither give place to the devil.neither give place to the devil;
28Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.whoso is stealing let him no more steal, but rather let him labour, working the thing that is good with the hands, that he may have to impart to him having need.
29Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good to the use of edifying, that it may minister grace unto the hearers.Let no corrupt word out of your mouth go forth, but what is good unto the needful building up, that it may give grace to the hearers;
30And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.and make not sorrowful the Holy Spirit of God, in which ye were sealed to a day of redemption.
31Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice:Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil-speaking, be put away from you, with all malice,
32And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you.and become one to another kind, tender-hearted, forgiving one another, according as also God in Christ did forgive you.

Ephesians chapter 5 (33 verses) - Worship the wrong god, and you cannot enter heaven. Wives are to submit to husbands

#christianity

KJVYLTNotes
1Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear children;Become, then, followers of God, as children beloved,

Ephesians 5:5: Universalism: If there is a Good God, Everyone Must Go to Heaven: 8. Christian Arguments for Universalism

For more on Ephesians 5:5 see Proverbs Chapter 6: 3.0. Proverbs 6:12-15 - Troublemakers and villains will be destroyed by God, with no chance for redemption

For more on Ephesians 5:5 see Christian Universalism in Matthew and Luke: Parables of the Vineyard Workers and the Lost Sheep: 1. Scripture Sometimes Presents a Universal Salvation for All, and Sometimes Only a Select Salvation for Some

Ephesians 5:22-25 is discussed on St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 6. The Misogyny of the New Testament: St Paul's Contribution

For more on Ephesians 5:22-24 see St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 8. A Few of Paul's Funky Laws

Ephesians 5:22-24 commented on above: Ephesians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians

Ephesians 5:25-33: St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 6. The Misogyny of the New Testament: St Paul's Contribution

2And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour.and walk in love, as also the Christ did love us, and did give himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for an odour of a sweet smell,
3But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints;and whoredom, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as becometh saints;
4Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks.also filthiness, and foolish talking, or jesting, -- the things not fit -- but rather thanksgiving;
5For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.for this ye know, that every whoremonger, or unclean, or covetous person, who is an idolater, hath no inheritance in the reign of the Christ and God.
6Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.Let no one deceive you with vain words, for because of these things cometh the anger of God upon the sons of the disobedience,
7Be not ye therefore partakers with them.become not, then, partakers with them,
8For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:for ye were once darkness, and now light in the Lord; as children of light walk ye,
9(For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;)for the fruit of the Spirit `is' in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth,
10Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord,
11And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them.and have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of the darkness and rather even convict,
12For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.for the things in secret done by them it is a shame even to speak of,
13But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever doth make manifest is light.and all the things reproved by the light are manifested, for everything that is manifested is light;
14Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.wherefore he saith, `Arouse thyself, thou who art sleeping, and arise out of the dead, and the Christ shall shine upon thee.'
15See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,See, then, how exactly ye walk, not as unwise, but as wise,
16Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.redeeming the time, because the days are evil;
17Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is.because of this become not fools, but -- understanding what `is' the will of the Lord,
18And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit;and be not drunk with wine, in which is dissoluteness, but be filled in the Spirit,
19Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord,
20Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;giving thanks always for all things, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to the God and Father;
21Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.subjecting yourselves to one another in the fear of God.
22Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord.The wives! to your own husbands subject yourselves, as to the Lord,
23For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body.because the husband is head of the wife, as also the Christ `is' head of the assembly, and he is saviour of the body,
24Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.but even as the assembly is subject to Christ, so also `are' the wives to their own husbands in everything.
25Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it;The husbands! love your own wives, as also the Christ did love the assembly, and did give himself for it,
26That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,that he might sanctify it, having cleansed `it' with the bathing of the water in the saying,
27That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.that he might present it to himself the assembly in glory, not having spot or wrinkle, or any of such things, but that it may be holy and unblemished;
28So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself.so ought the husbands to love their own wives as their own bodies: he who is loving his own wife -- himself he doth love;
29For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church:for no one ever his own flesh did hate, but doth nourish and cherish it, as also the Lord -- the assembly,
30For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.because members we are of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones;
31For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh.`for this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined to his wife, and they shall be -- the two -- for one flesh;'
32This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church.this secret is great, and I speak in regard to Christ and to the assembly;
33Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.but ye also, every one in particular -- let each his own wife so love as himself, and the wife -- that she may reverence the husband.

Ephesians chapter 6 (24 verses) - Servants are to obey their masters

#christianity

KJVYLTNotes
1Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right.The children! obey your parents in the Lord, for this is righteous;

Ephesians 6:1 comments: St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 8. A Few of Paul's Funky Laws

Ephesians 6:1 commentary above: Ephesians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians

Ephesians 6:1-2 commentary above: 4.3. Ephesians 6:1-2 (Obey and Honour Your Parents) Contradictions

Ephesians 6:2 is mentioned on Christian Moral Theory and Morality in Action: Biblical Morals and Social Disaster: 5. Jesus and the New Testament

Ephesians 6:5 appears on Traditional Religions and Abolition of the Slave Trade: 6.5. The New Testament

Some comments on Ephesians 6:5 are on St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 8. A Few of Paul's Funky Laws

Ephesians 6:5 appears on Christian Moral Theory and Morality in Action: Biblical Morals and Social Disaster: 5. Jesus and the New Testament

Ephesians 6:5 commentary above: Ephesians - The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians

2Honour thy father and mother; which is the first commandment with promise;honour thy father and mother,
3That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.which is the first command with a promise, `That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live a long time upon the land.'
4And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.And the fathers! provoke not your children, but nourish them in the instruction and admonition of the Lord.
5Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;The servants! obey the masters according to the flesh with fear and trembling, in the simplicity of your heart, as to the Christ;
6Not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart;not with eye-service as men-pleasers, but as servants of the Christ, doing the will of God out of soul,
7With good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men:with good-will serving, as to the Lord, and not to men,
8Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free.having known that whatever good thing each one may do, this he shall receive from the Lord, whether servant or freeman.
9And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him.And the masters! the same things do ye unto them, letting threatening alone, having known that also your Master is in the heavens, and acceptance of persons is not with him.
10Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might.As to the rest, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might;
11Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.put on the whole armour of God, for your being able to stand against the wiles of the devil,
12For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.because we have not the wrestling with blood and flesh, but with the principalities, with the authorities, with the world-rulers of the darkness of this age, with the spiritual things of the evil in the heavenly places;
13Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand.because of this take ye up the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to resist in the day of the evil, and all things having done -- to stand.
14Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness;Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about in truth, and having put on the breastplate of the righteousness,
15And your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace;and having the feet shod in the preparation of the good-news of the peace;
16Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.above all, having taken up the shield of the faith, in which ye shall be able all the fiery darts of the evil one to quench,
17And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God:and the helmet of the salvation receive, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the saying of God,
18Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all saints;through all prayer and supplication praying at all times in the Spirit, and in regard to this same, watching in all perseverance and supplication for all the saints --
19And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the gospel,and in behalf of me, that to me may be given a word in the opening of my mouth, in freedom, to make known the secret of the good news,
20For which I am an ambassador in bonds: that therein I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.for which I am an ambassador in a chain, that in it I may speak freely -- as it behoveth me to speak.
21But that ye also may know my affairs, and how I do, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, shall make known to you all things:And that ye may know -- ye also -- the things concerning me -- what I do, all things make known to you shall Tychicus, the beloved brother and faithful ministrant in the Lord,
22Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might know our affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts.whom I did send unto you for this very thing, that ye might know the things concerning us, and that he might comfort your hearts.
23Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.Peace to the brethren, and love, with faith, from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ!
24Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen.The grace with all those loving our Lord Jesus Christ -- undecayingly! Amen.

Current edition: 2017 Jan 10
Originally published 2012 Jul 14
http://www.holybooks.info/ephesians.html
Parent page: Hebrew Scriptures and Christian Holy Bibles Across Different Traditions

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References: (What's this?)

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The Catholic Encyclopedia. 15 volumes were produced between 1907 and 1912. Updates occurred in 1914 (an index) and 1914 (supplementary volumes). Published by the Robert Appleton Company, New York, USA (later renamed to The Encyclopedia Press). Reproduced on newadvent.org.

The Bible (NIV). The NIV is the best translation for accuracy whilst maintaining readability. Multiple authors, a compendium of multiple previously published books. I prefer to take quotes from the NIV but where I quote the Bible en masse I must quote from the KJV because it is not copyrighted, whilst the NIV is. Book Review.

Armstrong, Karen
(1986) The Gospel According to Woman: Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in the West. Hardback book. Subtitled: "Christianity's Creation of the Sex War in the West". Published by Elm Tree Books/Hamish Hamilton Ltd, London, UK.

Bruce, F. F.
(1988) The Canon of Scripture. Published by InterVarsity Press. Accessed via Google Books on 2017 Jan 08.

Ehrman, Bart
(2003) Lost Christianities. Hardback book. Published by Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
(2011) Forged. Hardback book. Subtitled: "Writing in the Name of God - Why the Bible's Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are". Published by HarperCollins, New York, USA.

Stanton, Elizabeth C.. (1815-1902)
(1898) The Woman's Bible. E-book. Amazon Kindle digital edition produced by Carrie Lorenz and John B. Hare.

Footnotes

  1. Ehrman (2011) p108-112.^^^^
  2. Bruce (1988) p139.^^
  3. The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909) entry "Epistle to the Ephesians" by P. Ladeuze. Date last accessed 2017 Jan 09.^^^
  4. Added to this page on 2017 Jan 07.^^
  5. Ehrman (2011) p180.^
  6. From www.ReligiousTolerance.org on 2002 August 19:
    "In his opinion, of the thirteen epistles which say that they were written by Paul, critical scholars have reached a near consensus that seven are Paul's: 1 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Philippians, Philemon and Romans.
    Agreement that he did not write:
    • 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus is about 90%
    • Ephesians is about 80%
    • Colossians is about 60%
    • 2 Thessalonians is a slight majority.
    "

    As an example, the historian Bart Ehrman notes in "Lost Christianities" that "the pastoral letters of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus [...] claim to be written by Paul, but appear to have been written long after his death"

    Yet other books are pseudonymous - forgeries by people who explicitly claim to be someone else. Included in this group is [...] probably the pastoral Epistles of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus, quite likely the deutero-Pauline Epistles of 2 Thessalonians, Colossians, and Ephesians, and possibly 1 Peter and Jude.

    "Lost Christianities" by Bart Ehrman (2003)12

    And,

    Virtually all scholars agree that seven of the Pauline letters are authentic: Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon. [...] The other six differ in significant ways from this core group of seven. Three of them - 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus - are so much alike that most scholars are convinced that they were written by the same person. The other three are usually assigned to three different authors.

    "Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)13

    ^
  7. Added to this page on 2017 Jan 09.^^
  8. Added to this page on 2017 Jan 08.^^^
  9. Richard Heard, "An Introduction to the New Testament" (1950), p205. Accessed via Google Books on 2017 Jan 09.^
  10. Armstrong (1986) p10-11.^
  11. Stanton (1898) p328-329.^
  12. Ehrman (2003) chapter 11 "The Invention of Scripture: The Formation of the Proto-orthodox New Testament" p235-236.^
  13. Ehrman (2011) p92. Added to this page on 2014 Jul 14.^

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