The Human Truth Foundation

2 Timothy - The 2nd Epistle of St. Paul to Timothy

By Vexen Crabtree 2012


Comments:
FB, LJ

#bible #christianity #new_testament #paul

Included as holy:

Protestant Bibles
Title: 2 Timothy
Section: New Testament

Prev: 1 Timothy
Next: Titus

Catholic Bible
Title: 2 Timothy
Section: New Testament

Prev: 1 Timothy
Next: Titus

Eastern Orthodox Bibles
Title: 2 Timothy
Section: New Testament

Prev: 1 Timothy
Next: Titus

Rejected by:
Jewish Tanakh

Chapters in 2 Timothy:
1  2  3  4 
Total verses: 83

The three pastoral epistles (letters) of St Paul are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy and Titus. Although they have been included in the New Testament canon since the 4th century, their authenticity has been heavily disputed. Scholars and Christian theologians are sure that all three are forgeries1,2,3,4,5, probably all by the same person2,3, a long time after St Paul's death6. The pastorals do not appear in the early collections of epistles of St Paul7 nor are they even mentioned until Irenaeus (~190CE)3 and Eusebius, the great Christian historian of the 4th century, still does not include 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy and Titus in his Bible3.

Paul left Timothy in charge of a Christian community in the small city of Ephesus. The two letters to Timothy include personal commentary plus advice on how to run the group. The author tells Timothy to enforce proper doctrine as many Christians did not believe what the author wanted them to. He instructs that Godliness is better than materialism.

[In 2 Timothy] Paul is allegedly writing from prison in Rome [...]. He [encourages Timothy] in his ongoing pastoral duties and his rooting out of false teachers who have infiltrated his church. 'Paul' expresses a great deal of love and concern for Timothy in this letter; it is far and away the most personalized of the Pastorals. And he hopes that Timothy will be able to join him in Rome soon, bringing some of his personal possessions.

"Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)8


1. An Introduction to St Paul

#christianity #gnosticism #mithraism #paul

13 of the books of the Christian New Testament are the epistles (letters) of St. Paul, and Paul is the earliest and first Christian author for which we have historical writings9. Seven were probably written by Paul himself and six others have been written in his name by (anonymous) followers, some up to 80 years after his death. By the time the official Bible canon was produced, no-one knew that only some were genuine. The historical Paul probably did write 1 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians, Philippians, Philemon and Romans. Letters forged in the name of Paul are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Ephesians, Colossians and 2 Thessalonians.1,2,10,4. Paul was born in Tarsus as "Saul" and adopted the name of Paul after converting to what is now Christianity. He was an early leader of the growing Christian churches around the Roman Empire, and the writings of St. Paul are the earliest existing Christian writings known to historians. Despite this, Paul never met Jesus and appears to rely mostly on Greek myths and legends, many of which he copied, placing Jesus at the center of them instead of their original heroes.

"St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism" by Vexen Crabtree (1999)

2. A Forgery 11

#bible #christianity #new_testament #paul

The pastoral epistles 'were the first books of Paul that, in the history of modern scholarship, were extensively argued to be forgeries'12 starting with Friedrich Schleiermacher in 1807. The books share peculiar and specific sentences and phrases that are not found in any of Paul's other letters - 'in 1921 British scholar A. N. Harrison [produced] numerous statistics about the word usage in these writings [and] over a third of them... do not occur in any of the Pauline letters of the New Testament. [... The] author is using a vocabulary that was becoming more common after the days of Paul, and that he therefore lived after Paul'13. Further analysis shows that words such as 'faith' and 'righteousness' are used different in the Pastoral Epistles to other Pauline books (i.e. in 'Titus)14. Other concepts of the Pastoral Epistles do not mesh well with Paul's actual teachings, especially where he insists that the leaders of the church are married, whereas in '1 Paul dissuades people from marrying (because the end is near)15. The social structure and organisation of the Church is much more developed in the Pastoral Letters than with Paul's writings16; the letter suits the 2nd century far more than the 1st. So, for all these reasons, the Pastoral Epistles of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus, are known to be forgeries in the name of Paul.

"1 Timothy - The 1st Epistle of St. Paul to Timothy: 2. A Forgery " by Vexen Crabtree (2012)

3. The 4 chapters of 2 Timothy (83 verses)

2 Timothy chapter 1 (18 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus,Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, through the will of God, according to a promise of life that `is' in Christ Jesus,

2 Timothy 1:9 is discussed on Is the Christian God Evil? Evidence from Scripture and Nature: 5. No Free Will in the New Testament

2 Timothy 1:9 is mentioned on Monotheism and Free Will: God, Determinism and Fate

2 Timothy 1:9 is discussed on The Illusion of Choice: Free Will and Determinism: 7.3. Free Will in the Christian Bible

2 Timothy 1:9 is referenced on Biblical Christianity Denies Free Will

2 Timothy 1:9: See Biblical Christianity Denies Free Will: 1.3. 2nd Letter to Timothy

2To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.to Timotheus, beloved child: Grace, kindness, peace, from God the Father, and Christ Jesus our Lord!
3I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;I am thankful to God, whom I serve from progenitors in a pure conscience, that unceasingly I have remembrance concerning thee in my supplications night and day,
4Greatly desiring to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that I may be filled with joy;desiring greatly to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that with joy I may be filled,
5When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.taking remembrance of the unfeigned faith that is in thee, that dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice, and I am persuaded that also in thee.
6Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands.For which cause I remind thee to stir up the gift of God that is in thee through the putting on of my hands,
7For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.for God did not give us a spirit of fear, but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind;
8Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;therefore thou mayest not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner, but do thou suffer evil along with the good news according to the power of God,
9Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,who did save us, and did call with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace, that was given to us in Christ Jesus, before the times of the ages,
10But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:and was made manifest now through the manifestation of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who indeed did abolish death, and did enlighten life and immortality through the good news,
11Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.to which I was placed a preacher and an apostle, and a teacher of nations,
12For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.for which cause also these things I suffer, but I am not ashamed, for I have known in whom I have believed, and have been persuaded that he is able that which I have committed to him to guard -- to that day.
13Hold fast the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.The pattern hold thou of sound words, which from me thou didst hear, in faith and love that `is' in Christ Jesus;
14That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us.the good thing committed guard thou through the Holy Spirit that is dwelling in us;
15This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes.thou hast known this, that they did turn from me -- all those in Asia, of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes;
16The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain:may the Lord give kindness to the house of Onesiphorus, because many times he did refresh me, and of my chain was not ashamed,
17But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me.but being in Rome, very diligently he sought me, and found;
18The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day: and in how many things he ministered unto me at Ephesus, thou knowest very well.may the Lord give to him to find kindness from the Lord in that day; and how many things in Ephesus he did minister thou dost very well know.

2 Timothy chapter 2 (26 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus.Thou, therefore, my child, be strong in the grace that `is' in Christ Jesus,

For more on 2 Timothy 2:8 see Christian Adoptionism and the Baptism of Jesus Christ: Centuries of Belief Before the Trinity

2 Timothy 2:8 is discussed on Christian Adoptionism and the Baptism of Jesus Christ: Centuries of Belief Before the Trinity: 1. Jesus Becoming God

2 Timothy 2:8 comments: Gnosticism (1st-7th Century): The Birth of Christianity: 3.2. Adoptionism (The True God Adopted Jesus)

2 Timothy 2:8 appears on 1st Century Christian Ebionites: The Original Christians?: 2.3. Adoptionism

2 Timothy 2:8: See The Birth of Jesus and the Christmas Story: Pagan and Unhistorical: 4.1. King David and Joseph

Some comments on 2 Timothy 2:10 are on Acts - The Acts of the Apostles: 1. A Forgery

2 Timothy 2:13 comments: Can God Lie? Is God Always Truthful in the Christian Bible?

2And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also.and the things that thou didst hear from me through many witnesses, these things be committing to stedfast men, who shall be sufficient also others to teach;
3Thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ.thou, therefore, suffer evil as a good soldier of Jesus Christ;
4No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life; that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier.no one serving as a soldier did entangle himself with the affairs of life, that him who did enlist him he may please;
5And if a man also strive for masteries, yet is he not crowned, except he strive lawfully.and if also any one may strive, he is not crowned, except he may strive lawfully;
6The husbandman that laboureth must be first partaker of the fruits.the labouring husbandman it behoveth first of the fruits to partake;
7Consider what I say; and the Lord give thee understanding in all things.be considering what things I say, for the Lord give to thee understanding in all things.
8Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from the dead according to my gospel:Remember Jesus Christ, raised out of the dead, of the seed of David, according to my good news,
9Wherein I suffer trouble, as an evil doer, even unto bonds; but the word of God is not bound.in which I suffer evil -- unto bonds, as an evil-doer, but the word of God hath not been bound;
10Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sakes, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.because of this all things do I endure, because of the choice ones, that they also salvation may obtain that `is' in Christ Jesus, with glory age-during.
11It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him:Stedfast `is' the word: For if we died together -- we also shall live together;
12If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:if we do endure together -- we shall also reign together; if we deny `him', he also shall deny us;
13If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful: he cannot deny himself.if we are not stedfast, he remaineth stedfast; to deny himself he is not able.
14Of these things put them in remembrance, charging them before the Lord that they strive not about words to no profit, but to the subverting of the hearers.These things remind `them' of, testifying fully before the Lord -- not to strive about words to nothing profitable, but to the subversion of those hearing;
15Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.be diligent to present thyself approved to God -- a workman irreproachable, rightly dividing the word of the truth;
16But shun profane and vain babblings: for they will increase unto more ungodliness.and the profane vain talkings stand aloof from, for to more impiety they will advance,
17And their word will eat as doth a canker: of whom is Hymenaeus and Philetus;and their word as a gangrene will have pasture, of whom is Hymenaeus and Philetus,
18Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrection is past already; and overthrow the faith of some.who concerning the truth did swerve, saying the rising again to have already been, and do overthrow the faith of some;
19Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.sure, nevertheless, hath the foundation of God stood, having this seal, `The Lord hath known those who are His,' and `Let him depart from unrighteousness -- every one who is naming the name of Christ.'
20But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to honour, and some to dishonour.And in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth, and some to honour, and some to dishonour:
21If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the master's use, and prepared unto every good work.if, then, any one may cleanse himself from these, he shall be a vessel to honour, sanctified and profitable to the master -- to every good work having been prepared,
22Flee also youthful lusts: but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart.and the youthful lusts flee thou, and pursue righteousness, faith, love, peace, with those calling upon the Lord out of a pure heart;
23But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they do gender strifes.and the foolish and uninstructed questions be avoiding, having known that they beget strife,
24And the servant of the Lord must not strive; but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient,and a servant of the Lord it behoveth not to strive, but to be gentle unto all, apt to teach, patient under evil,
25In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God peradventure will give them repentance to the acknowledging of the truth;in meekness instructing those opposing -- if perhaps God may give to them repentance to an acknowledging of the truth,
26And that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will.and they may awake out of the devil's snare, having been caught by him at his will.

2 Timothy chapter 3 (17 verses) - Bad people in the last days; controlling and resistant people; endure in persecution; purpose & usefulness of Scripture17

KJVYLTNotes
1This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come.And this know thou, that in the last days there shall come perilous times,
2For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy,for men shall be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boasters, proud, evil-speakers, to parents disobedient, unthankful, unkind,
3Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good,without natural affection, implacable, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, not lovers of those who are good,
4Traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God;traitors, heady, lofty, lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God,
5Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away.having a form of piety, and its power having denied; and from these be turning away,
6For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts,for of these there are those coming into the houses and leading captive the silly women, laden with sins, led away with desires manifold,
7Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.always learning, and never to a knowledge of truth able to come,
8Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth: men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith.and, even as Jannes and Jambres stood against Moses, so also these do stand against the truth, men corrupted in mind, disapproved concerning the faith;
9But they shall proceed no further: for their folly shall be manifest unto all men, as their's also was.but they shall not advance any further, for their folly shall be manifest to all, as theirs also did become.
10But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience,And thou -- thou hast followed after my teaching, manner of life, purpose, faith, long-suffering, love, endurance,
11Persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra; what persecutions I endured: but out of them all the Lord delivered me.the persecutions, the afflictions, that befel me in Antioch, in Iconium, in Lystra; what persecutions I endured, and out of all the Lord did deliver me,
12Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.and all also who will to live piously in Christ Jesus shall be persecuted,
13But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived.and evil men and impostors shall advance to the worse, leading astray and being led astray.
14But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them;And thou -- be remaining in the things which thou didst learn and wast entrusted with, having known from whom thou didst learn,
15And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.and because from a babe the Holy Writings thou hast known, which are able to make thee wise -- to salvation, through faith that `is' in Christ Jesus;
16All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:every Writing `is' God-breathed, and profitable for teaching, for conviction, for setting aright, for instruction that `is' in righteousness,
17That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.that the man of God may be fitted -- for every good work having been completed.

2 Timothy chapter 4 (22 verses)

KJVYLTNotes
1I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;I do fully testify, then, before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who is about to judge living and dead at his manifestation and his reign --

2 Timothy 4:2 is referenced on Instruct with Great Patience: How Christians Should Preach and Debate, According to the Bible

2 Timothy 4:2 appears on 2 John - The 2nd Epistle of John

For more on 2 Timothy 4:2 see Scriptural Debating Style: Christians and Muslims Must be Patient and Courteous: 1. Christianity: With Patience, Gentleness and Respect

2 Timothy 4:2 is mentioned on Scriptural Debating Style: Christians and Muslims Must be Patient and Courteous: 2. Islam: With Courteous Manners and Wisdom

2 Timothy 4:2 is mentioned on Christian Moral Theory and Morality in Action: Biblical Morals and Social Disaster: 8. Christian Extremism, Intolerance and Resurgent Fundamentalism

2 Timothy 4:2 is referenced on Christianity: The Bible Teachings on Those Who Believe Wrongly: 2. The Dangers of Believing in God Wrongly

2 Timothy 4:2: See Religious Extremism: 5. Extremism in Christianity

2Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.preach the word; be earnest in season, out of season, convict, rebuke, exhort, in all long-suffering and teaching,
3For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears;for there shall be a season when the sound teaching they will not suffer, but according to their own desires to themselves they shall heap up teachers -- itching in the hearing,
4And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables.and indeed, from the truth the hearing they shall turn away, and to the fables they shall be turned aside.
5But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry.And thou -- watch in all things; suffer evil; do the work of one proclaiming good news; of thy ministration make full assurance,
6For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand.for I am already being poured out, and the time of my release hath arrived;
7I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith:the good strife I have striven, the course I have finished, the faith I have kept,
8Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of the righteousness that the Lord -- the Righteous Judge -- shall give to me in that day, and not only to me, but also to all those loving his manifestation.
9Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me:Be diligent to come unto me quickly,
10For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia.for Demas forsook me, having loved the present age, and went on to Thessalonica, Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia,
11Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry.Lukas only is with me; Markus having taken, bring with thyself, for he is profitable to me for ministration;
12And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus.and Tychicus I sent to Ephesus;
13The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee, and the books, but especially the parchments.the cloak that I left in Troas with Carpus, coming, bring thou and the books -- especially the parchments.
14Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord reward him according to his works:Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil; may the Lord repay to him according to his works,
15Of whom be thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood our words.of whom also do thou beware, for greatly hath he stood against our words;
16At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me: I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge.in my first defence no one stood with me, but all forsook me, (may it not be reckoned to them!)
17Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear: and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion.and the Lord stood by me, and did strengthen me, that through me the preaching might be fully assured, and all the nations might hear, and I was freed out of the mouth of a lion,
18And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.and the Lord shall free me from every evil work, and shall save `me' -- to his heavenly kingdom; to whom `is' the glory to the ages of the ages! Amen.
19Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus.Salute Prisca and Aquilas, and Onesiphorus' household;
20Erastus abode at Corinth: but Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick.Erastus did remain in Corinth, and Trophimus I left in Miletus infirm;
21Do thy diligence to come before winter. Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren.be diligent to come before winter. Salute thee doth Eubulus, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren.
22The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with you. Amen.The Lord Jesus Christ `is' with thy spirit; the grace `is' with you! Amen.

Current edition: 2012 Jul 14
Last Modified: 2018 Apr 17
http://www.holybooks.info/2_timothy.html
Parent page: Hebrew Scriptures and Christian Holy Bibles Across Different Traditions

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#bible #christianity #gnosticism #mithraism #new_testament #paul

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Bible (NIV). The NIV is the best translation for accuracy whilst maintaining readability. Multiple authors, a compendium of multiple previously published books. I prefer to take quotes from the NIV but where I quote the Bible en masse I must quote from the KJV because it is not copyrighted, whilst the NIV is. Book Review.

Ehrman, Bart
(2003) Lost Christianities. Published by Oxford University Press, New York, USA. A hardback book.
(2011) Forged. Subtitled: "Writing in the Name of God - Why the Bible's Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are". Published by HarperCollins, New York, USA. A hardback book.

Eusebius. Eusebius of Caesarea also known as Eusebius Pamphili (260-339CE)
(324) Ecclesiastical History. Originally published 313. Current version published by The Christian Literature Co, New York, USA.. Translated into English by Rev. Arthur Cushman McGiffert & Earnest Cushing Richardson in 1890.

Freke, Timothy & Gandy, Peter
(1999) The Jesus Mysteries. 2000 edition. Published by Thorsons, London, UK. A paperback book. Book Review.

Lüdermann, G.
(1995) Heretics. Published by SCM Press. In Freke & Gandy (1999) P196..

Pagels, E.
(1975) The Gnostic Paul. Published by Trinity Press International. In Freke & Gandy (1999) P196-197..

Footnotes

  1. Ehrman (2003). Chapter 11 "The Invention of Scripture: The Formation of the Proto-orthodox New Testament" p235-236.^^
  2. Ehrman (2011). P92.^^
  3. Freke & Gandy (1999). P196-197.^
  4. Lüdermann (1995) .^^
  5. Eusebius (324). Footnote 16 of translator's comments.^
  6. Ehrman (2003). P11.^
  7. Pagels (1975). P5. Valentinian Gnostics cite only Romans, 1 and 2 Corinth, Galatians, Ephesians, Phillipians, Colossians, 1 Thess and Hebrews. This list corresponds exactly to the earliest known Pauline collection attested from Alexandria.^
  8. Ehrman (2011). P94-95.^
  9. Ehrman (2011). P180.^
  10. From www.ReligiousTolerance.org on 2002 August 19:
    "In his opinion, of the thirteen epistles which say that they were written by Paul, critical scholars have reached a near consensus that seven are Paul's: 1 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Philippians, Philemon and Romans.
    Agreement that he did not write:
    • 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus is about 90%
    • Ephesians is about 80%
    • Colossians is about 60%
    • 2 Thessalonians is a slight majority.
    ^
  11. Added to this page on 2018 Apr 15.^
  12. Ehrman (2011). P93-95.^
  13. Ehrman (2011). P98.^
  14. Ehrman (2011). P99.^
  15. Ehrman (2011). P99-100.^
  16. Ehrman (2011). P100-102.^
  17. www.biblesummary.info was host to a daily Twitter tweet from its author, each of which summarizes a chapter from the Bible. Accessed 2014 Feb.^

©2018 Vexen Crabtree all rights reserved.
This site uses the HTF Disclaimer (as linked here)