The Human Truth Foundation

1 Peter - The 1st Epistle of Peter

By Vexen Crabtree 2012

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Protestant Bibles
Title: 1 Peter
Section: New Testament

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Next: 2 Peter

Catholic Bible
Title: 1 Peter
Section: New Testament

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Next: 2 Peter

Eastern Orthodox Bibles
Title: 1 Peter
Section: New Testament

Prev: James
Next: 2 Peter

Rejected by:
Jewish Tanakh

Chapters in 1 Peter:
1  2  3  4  5 
Total verses: 105

The First Epistle of Peter (1 Peter) was written after 70CE1 in Rome2, and the Second Epistle of Peter (2 Peter) in the second century3 by another unknown Greek Christian4. This letter is one of many documents written in the name of Peter and about Peter by early Christians. We have copies of a Gospel of Peter, the Epistle of Peter, at least 3 different Apocalypse of Peter texts, multiple Acts of Peter and a collection called the Preaching of Peter1 all of which Christians themselves eventually declared to be counterfeit. There are ominous oddities in the text of 1 Peter and 2 Peter which indicate that the texts are also, like the others, forgeries, written by unknown Christians1. For example, Peter (a Hebrew) doesn't quote from the Old Testament in Hebrew, but quotes from the uniquely translated Greek Septuagint translation of the Old Testament2. For a long time, Christians asserted strongly that both 1 and 2 Peter were written by Saint Peter, but, many modern scholars think that 1 Peter is a forgery, and most scholars know that 2 Peter is an obvious forgery2,5.

"The First Epistle of Peter is addressed to Christians living in Roman provinces in northern Asia Minor [...] to newly converted Christians to encourage them to rejoice and persevere in their faith in spite of persecution and other hardships"2 and the text "reflects a knowledge of certain Epistles of Saint Paul"2.

1. 1 Peter Was a Forgery6

#christianity #judaism

Date of composition: In 70CE, Rome destroyed the temple in Jerusalem, sending shockwaves through the Jewish and Christian communities. After that, Jews (and Christians) called Rome Babylon in coded letters, as the city of Babylon had also destroyed the temple, in the 6th century BCE. In 1 Peter 5:13 the author refers to Rome as Babylon. Therefore, 1 Peter was written after 70CE, which is an entire generation after the life of Jesus.7. Further historical evidence has led historians to pinpoint a date of around 96CE as the date of composition2.

Language of composition: The main problems with 1 and 2 Peter are how the letters came to be written at all - especially as they are written in excellent Greek2. Peter, a fisherman, came from Capernaum, where no-one was literate. It was:

... a historically insignificant village in rural Galilee. It is never mentioned in any ancient source prior to the Gospels. It is scarcely mentioned by any sources after that. It was discovered by archaeologists in the nineteenth century and has been excavated since then. In the time of Jesus it may have had anywhere between six and fifteen hundred inhabitants. [... There is] no evidence of any public buildings whatsoever, such as shops of storage facilities. [...] The Roman roads in the area date from a hundred years after Peter's life. There is no trace of any pagan or Gentile [i.e., Greek-speaking] population in the town. There are no inscriptions of any kind on any of the buildings [and no] structures or materials associated with social elites from the first century [some of whom could write]. [...] Everyone spoke Aramaic. Nothing suggests anyone could speak Greek. Nothing suggests anyone in town could write. [... Peter would have] never attended school. [...] Peter was an illiterate peasant.

"Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)1

We already know that Peter was illiterate, however - it says so in Acts 4:13, where Peter and John, both fisherman, are called agrammatoi - illiterate. But 1 and 2 Peter are "written by a highly literate, highly educated, Greek-speaking Christian who is intimately familiar with the Jewish Scriptures in their Greek translation, the Septuagint. This is not Peter"1.

Some Christian apologists therefore argued that the Epistles of Peter could have been dictated to a Greek scribe, who wrote it down for him. However, ancient language experts can see that the text isn't a translation of Aramaic to Greek. And Ehrman points out that the "the letter contains sophisticated forms of argumentation and presentation that only work in Greek and presupposes knowledge of the Greek Old Testament, not the Hebrew version"8.

The idea that Peter was educated after Jesus' life and death is very, very unlikely. To learn a new language and become literate in it, and then learn to write it (which were all different endeavours in the ancient world), and to learn the Septuagint in that new language well enough to navigate through it and quote from it expertly, is only the level of skill ever attained by the extreme upper class. There is no evidence that there even were any adult language classes, anywhere, in that entire region.

Another clue in 1 Peter 5:12 is frequently misread. "Through Silvanus" means that Silvanus was the person who delivered the letter, nor the person who wrote it. The dictating of letters was undertaken only at the highest levels - at generals and government level - and the rare and expensive upper-class scribes who done this would not then go and deliver the letters themselves - such a menial task was done by nobodies. Silvanus is not mentioned anywhere as a scribes in the Roman Empire. He was a nobody, not a scribe. Also, no-one else in the Greek or Hebrew world ever referred to a letter written by a secretary as being sent 'through' the secretary1.

Where in the ancient world do we have anything at all analogous to this hypothetical situation of someone writing a letter-essay for someone else and putting the other person's name on it [...]? So far as I know, there is not a single instance of any such procedure attested from antiquity or any discussion, in any ancient source, of this being a legitimate practice. Or even an illegitimate one. Such a thing is never discussed. There are plenty of instances of another phenomenon, however [...] of Christian authors writing pseudonymous works, falsely claiming to be a famous person. [...] Modern people would simply call it a forgery'. And that's what 1 and 2 Peter are: yet more forgeries in the name of Peter, like many others of the time.

"Forged" by Bart Ehrman (2011)9

2. The 5 chapters of 1 Peter (105 verses)

1 Peter chapter 1 (25 verses)

1Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the choice sojourners of the dispersion of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
2Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.according to a foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, to obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied!
3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,Blessed `is' the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who, according to the abundance of His kindness did beget us again to a living hope, through the rising again of Jesus Christ out of the dead,
4To an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you,to an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and unfading, reserved in the heavens for you,
5Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.who, in the power of God are being guarded, through faith, unto salvation, ready to be revealed in the last time,
6Wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, ye are in heaviness through manifold temptations:in which ye are glad, a little now, if it be necessary, being made to sorrow in manifold trials,
7That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ:that the proof of your faith -- much more precious than of gold that is perishing, and through fire being approved -- may be found to praise, and honour, and glory, in the revelation of Jesus Christ,
8Whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory:whom, not having seen, ye love, in whom, now not seeing and believing, ye are glad with joy unspeakable and glorified,
9Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.receiving the end of your faith -- salvation of souls;
10Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you:concerning which salvation seek out and search out did prophets who concerning the grace toward you did prophecy,
11Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow.searching in regard to what or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ that was in them was manifesting, testifying beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glory after these,
12Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look whom it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to us they were ministering these, which now were told to you (through those who did proclaim good news to you,) in the Holy Spirit sent from heaven, to which things messengers do desire to bend looking.
13Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ;Wherefore having girded up the loins of your mind, being sober, hope perfectly upon the grace that is being brought to you in the revelation of Jesus Christ,
14As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance:as obedient children, not fashioning yourselves to the former desires in your ignorance,
15But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation;but according as He who did call you `is' holy, ye also, become holy in all behaviour,
16Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy.because it hath been written, `Become ye holy, because I am holy;'
17And if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work, pass the time of your sojourning here in fear:and if on the Father ye do call, who without acceptance of persons is judging according to the work of each, in fear the time of your sojourn pass ye,
18Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;having known that, not with corruptible things -- silver or gold -- were ye redeemed from your foolish behaviour delivered by fathers,
19But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and unspotted -- Christ's --
20Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,foreknown, indeed, before the foundation of the world, and manifested in the last times because of you,
21Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.who through him do believe in God, who did raise out of the dead, and glory to him did give, so that your faith and hope may be in God.
22Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently:Your souls having purified in the obedience of the truth through the Spirit to brotherly love unfeigned, out of a pure heart one another love ye earnestly,
23Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever.being begotten again, not out of seed corruptible, but incorruptible, through a word of God -- living and remaining -- to the age;
24For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away:because all flesh `is' as grass, and all glory of man as flower of grass; wither did the grass, and the flower of it fell away,
25But the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you.and the saying of the Lord doth remain -- to the age; and this is the saying that was proclaimed good news to you.

1 Peter chapter 2 (25 verses)

1Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, all evil speakings,Having put aside, then, all evil, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envyings, and all evil speakings,

1 Peter 2:2: Infanticide and Heaven: Killing Babies for God: 4. The Problem of Evil

1 Peter 2:13-15: See How Modern Christianity Began: The Cappadocian-Nicene-Pauline Roman Amalgamation: 2.2. Power Struggles

2As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby:as new-born babes the word's pure milk desire ye, that in it ye may grow,
3If so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious.if so be ye did taste that the Lord `is' gracious,
4To whom coming, as unto a living stone, disallowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and precious,to whom coming -- a living stone -- by men, indeed, having been disapproved of, but with God choice, precious,
5Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.and ye yourselves, as living stones, are built up, a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
6Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.Wherefore, also, it is contained in the Writing: `Lo, I lay in Zion a chief corner-stone, choice, precious, and he who is believing on him may not be put to shame;'
7Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner,to you, then, who are believing `is' the preciousness; and to the unbelieving, a stone that the builders disapproved of, this one did become for the head of a corner,
8And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.and a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence -- who are stumbling at the word, being unbelieving, -- to which also they were set;
9But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light;and ye `are' a choice race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people acquired, that the excellences ye may shew forth of Him who out of darkness did call you to His wondrous light;
10Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.who `were' once not a people, and `are' now the people of God; who had not found kindness, and now have found kindness.
11Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;Beloved, I call upon `you', as strangers and sojourners, to keep from the fleshly desires, that war against the soul,
12Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles: that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.having your behaviour among the nations right, that in that which they speak against you as evil-doers, of the good works having beheld, they may glorify God in a day of inspection.
13Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme;Be subject, then, to every human creation, because of the Lord, whether to a king, as the highest,
14Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.whether to governors, as to those sent through him, for punishment, indeed, of evil-doers, and a praise of those doing good;
15For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men:because, so is the will of God, doing good, to put to silence the ignorance of the foolish men;
16As free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants of free, and not having the freedom as the cloak of the evil, but as servants of God;
17Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the all give ye honour; the brotherhood love ye; God fear ye; the king honour ye.
18Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.The domestics! be subjecting yourselves in all fear to the masters, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the cross;
19For this is thankworthy, if a man for conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully.for this `is' gracious, if because of conscience toward God any one doth endure sorrows, suffering unrighteously;
20For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God.for what renown `is it', if sinning and being buffeted, ye do endure `it'? but if, doing good and suffering `for it', ye do endure, this `is' gracious with God,
21For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps:for to this ye were called, because Christ also did suffer for you, leaving to you an example, that ye may follow his steps,
22Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth:who did not commit sin, nor was guile found in his mouth,
23Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:who being reviled -- was not reviling again, suffering -- was not threatening, and was committing himself to Him who is judging righteously,
24Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.who our sins himself did bear in his body, upon the tree, that to the sins having died, to the righteousness we may live; by whose stripes ye were healed,
25For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.for ye were as sheep going astray, but ye turned back now to the shepherd and overseer of your souls.

1 Peter chapter 3 (22 verses)

1Likewise, ye wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; that, if any obey not the word, they also may without the word be won by the conversation of the wives;In like manner, the wives, be ye subject to your own husbands, that even if certain are disobedient to the word, through the conversation of the wives, without the word, they may be won,

1 Peter 3:1 appears on St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 6. The Misogyny of the New Testament: St Paul's Contribution

1 Peter 3:3 is mentioned on St Paul - History, Biblical Epistles, Gnosticism and Mithraism: 6. The Misogyny of the New Testament: St Paul's Contribution

For more on 1 Peter 3:3-4 see Biblical Dress Codes: God's Laws on Clothes: 1. Laws and Rules on Clothes in the Bible

1 Peter 3:15-16 comments: 2 John - The 2nd Epistle of John

1 Peter 3:15-16 is referenced on Christian Moral Theory and Morality in Action: Biblical Morals and Social Disaster

1 Peter 3:15-16 is mentioned on Instruct with Great Patience: How Christians Should Preach and Debate, According to the Bible

1 Peter 3:15-16 is referenced on Scriptural Debating Style: Christians and Muslims Must be Patient and Courteous: 1. Christianity: With Patience, Gentleness and Respect

1 Peter 3:15-16 is mentioned on Scriptural Debating Style: Christians and Muslims Must be Patient and Courteous: 2. Islam: With Courteous Manners and Wisdom

Some comments on 1 Peter 3:15-16 are on Religious Extremism

1 Peter 3:18 is referenced on Homocentricity or Anthropocentrism: Why Do Religions Think Humanity Is Central to God and Creation?: 1.2. Homocentricity in Christianity

1 Peter 3:18 is referenced on The Crucifixion Facade: 5. Extra-Terrestrial Alien Life and Salvation

1 Peter 3:18: See When Human Religions Meet Intelligent Alien Life: 2. Saviour Religions Will be Challenged

1 Peter 3:18: When Human Religions Meet Intelligent Alien Life: 2. Saviour Religions Will be Challenged

2While they behold your chaste conversation coupled with fear.having beheld your pure behaviour in fear,
3Whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel;whose adorning -- let it not be that which is outward, of plaiting of hair, and of putting around of things of gold, or of putting on of garments,
4But let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price.but -- the hidden man of the heart, in the incorruptible thing of the meek and quiet spirit, which is, before God, of great price,
5For after this manner in the old time the holy women also, who trusted in God, adorned themselves, being in subjection unto their own husbands:for thus once also the holy women who did hope on God, were adorning themselves, being subject to their own husbands,
6Even as Sara obeyed Abraham, calling him lord: whose daughters ye are, as long as ye do well, and are not afraid with any Sarah was obedient to Abraham, calling him `sir,' of whom ye did become daughters, doing good, and not fearing any terror.
7Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife, as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life; that your prayers be not hindered.The husbands, in like manner, dwelling with `them', according to knowledge, as to a weaker vessel -- to the wife -- imparting honour, as also being heirs together of the grace of life, that your prayers be not hindered.
8Finally, be ye all of one mind, having compassion one of another, love as brethren, be pitiful, be courteous:And finally, being all of one mind, having fellow-feeling, loving as brethren, compassionate, courteous,
9Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; knowing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit a blessing.not giving back evil for evil, or railing for railing, and on the contrary, blessing, having known that to this ye were called, that a blessing ye may inherit;
10For he that will love life, and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips that they speak no guile:for `he who is willing to love life, and to see good days, let him guard his tongue from evil, and his lips -- not to speak guile;
11Let him eschew evil, and do good; let him seek peace, and ensue it.let him turn aside from evil, and do good, let him seek peace and pursue it;
12For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers: but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil.because the eyes of the Lord `are' upon the righteous, and His ears -- to their supplication, and the face of the Lord `is' upon those doing evil;'
13And who is he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good?and who `is' he who will be doing you evil, if of Him who is good ye may become imitators?
14But and if ye suffer for righteousness' sake, happy are ye: and be not afraid of their terror, neither be troubled;but if ye also should suffer because of righteousness, happy `are ye'! and of their fear be not afraid, nor be troubled,
15But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:and the Lord God sanctify in your hearts. And `be' ready always for defence to every one who is asking of you an account concerning the hope that `is' in you, with meekness and fear;
16Having a good conscience; that, whereas they speak evil of you, as of evildoers, they may be ashamed that falsely accuse your good conversation in Christ.having a good conscience, that in that in which they speak against you as evil-doers, they may be ashamed who are traducing your good behaviour in Christ;
17For it is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well doing, than for evil doing.for `it is' better doing good, if the will of God will it, to suffer, than doing evil;
18For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:because also Christ once for sin did suffer -- righteous for unrighteous -- that he might lead us to God, having been put to death indeed, in the flesh, and having been made alive in the spirit,
19By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison;in which also to the spirits in prison having gone he did preach,
20Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.who sometime disbelieved, when once the long-suffering of God did wait, in days of Noah -- an ark being preparing -- in which few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water;
21The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ:also to which an antitype doth now save us -- baptism, (not a putting away of the filth of flesh, but the question of a good conscience in regard to God,) through the rising again of Jesus Christ,
22Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.who is at the right hand of God, having gone on to heaven -- messengers, and authorities, and powers, having been subjected to him.

1 Peter chapter 4 (19 verses)

1Forasmuch then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind: for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin;Christ, then, having suffered for us in the flesh, ye also with the same mind arm yourselves, because he who did suffer in the flesh hath done with sin,
2That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of more in the desires of men, but in the will of God, to live the rest of the time in the flesh;
3For the time past of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries:for sufficient to us `is' the past time of life the will of the nations to have wrought, having walked in lasciviousnesses, desires, excesses of wines, revelings, drinking-bouts, and unlawful idolatries,
4Wherein they think it strange that ye run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you:in which they think it strange -- your not running with them to the same excess of dissoluteness, speaking evil,
5Who shall give account to him that is ready to judge the quick and the dead.who shall give an account to Him who is ready to judge living and dead,
6For for this cause was the gospel preached also to them that are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit.for for this also to dead men was good news proclaimed, that they may be judged, indeed, according to men in the flesh, and may live according to God in the spirit.
7But the end of all things is at hand: be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer.And of all things the end hath come nigh; be sober-minded, then, and watch unto the prayers,
8And above all things have fervent charity among yourselves: for charity shall cover the multitude of sins.and, before all things, to one another having the earnest love, because the love shall cover a multitude of sins;
9Use hospitality one to another without grudging.hospitable to one another, without murmuring;
10As every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God.each, according as he received a gift, to one another ministering it, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God;
11If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.if any one doth speak -- `as oracles of God;' if any one doth minister -- `as of the ability which God doth supply;' that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom is the glory and the power -- to the ages of the ages. Amen.
12Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you:Beloved, think it not strange at the fiery suffering among you that is coming to try you, as if a strange thing were happening to you,
13But rejoice, inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ's sufferings; that, when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy.but, according as ye have fellowship with the sufferings of the Christ, rejoice ye, that also in the revelation of his glory ye may rejoice -- exulting;
14If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified.if ye be reproached in the name of Christ -- happy `are ye', because the Spirit of glory and of God upon you doth rest; in regard, indeed, to them, he is evil-spoken of, and in regard to you, he is glorified;
15But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as an evildoer, or as a busybody in other men's matters.for let none of you suffer as a murderer, or thief, or evil-doer, or as an inspector into other men's matters;
16Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf.and if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; and let him glorify God in this respect;
17For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God?because it is the time of the beginning of the judgment from the house of God, and if first from us, what the end of those disobedient to the good news of God?
18And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?And if the righteous man is scarcely saved, the ungodly and sinner -- where shall he appear?
19Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful that also those suffering according to the will of god, as to a stedfast Creator, let them commit their own souls in good doing.

1 Peter chapter 5 (14 verses)

1The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:Elders who `are' among you, I exhort, who `am' a fellow-elder, and a witness of the sufferings of the Christ, and of the glory about to be revealed a partaker,

1 Peter 5:12 commentary above: 1. 1 Peter Was a Forgery

1 Peter 5:13 commentary above: 1. 1 Peter Was a Forgery

2Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind;feed the flock of God that `is' among you, overseeing not constrainedly, but willingly, neither for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind,
3Neither as being lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.neither as exercising lordship over the heritages, but patterns becoming of the flock,
4And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.and at the manifestation of the chief Shepherd, ye shall receive the unfading crown of glory.
5Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.In like manner, ye younger, be subject to elders, and all to one another subjecting yourselves; with humble-mindedness clothe yourselves, because God the proud doth resist, but to the humble He doth give grace;
6Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time:be humbled, then, under the powerful hand of God, that you He may exalt in good time,
7Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you.all your care having cast upon Him, because He careth for you.
8Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:Be sober, vigilant, because your opponent the devil, as a roaring lion, doth walk about, seeking whom he may swallow up,
9Whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.whom resist, stedfast in the faith, having known the same sufferings to your brotherhood in the world to be accomplished.
10But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you.And the God of all grace, who did call you to His age-during glory in Christ Jesus, having suffered a little, Himself make you perfect, establish, strengthen, settle `you';
11To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Him `is' the glory, and the power -- to the ages and the ages! Amen.
12By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand.Through Silvanus, to you the faithful brother, as I reckon, through few `words' I did write, exhorting and testifying this to be the true grace of God in which ye have stood.
13The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.Salute you doth the `assembly' in Babylon jointly elected, and Markus my son.
14Greet ye one another with a kiss of charity. Peace be with you all that are in Christ Jesus. Amen.Salute ye one another in a kiss of love; peace to you all who `are' in Christ Jesus! Amen.

Current edition: 2012 Jul 14
Last Modified: 2015 Apr 30
Parent page: Hebrew Scriptures and Christian Holy Bibles Across Different Traditions

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Book Cover

Book Cover

The Bible (NIV). The NIV is the best translation for accuracy whilst maintaining readability. Multiple authors, a compendium of multiple previously published books. I prefer to take quotes from the NIV but where I quote the Bible en masse I must quote from the KJV because it is not copyrighted, whilst the NIV is. Book Review.

Ehrman, Bart
(2003) Lost Christianities. Hardback book. Published by Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
(2011) Forged. Hardback book. Subtitled: "Writing in the Name of God - Why the Bible's Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are". Published by HarperCollins, New York, USA.

Roberts, Jenny
(1997) Bible Facts. Hardback book. Originally published 1990. Current version published by Grange Books, London.


  1. Ehrman (2011) p66-68, 73-77.^^
  2. Encarta Encyclopedia article accessed 2014 Mar 14.^^
  3. Roberts (1997) .^
  4. Ehrman (2003) p11.^
  5. Ehrman (2003) p11, 68-69.^
  6. Added to this page on 2015 Apr 30.^
  7. Ehrman (2011) p68.^
  8. Ehrman (2011) p139.^
  9. Ehrman (2011) p77.^

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